JSIS 202 Week 6 Notes
JSIS 202 Week 6 Notes JSIS 202
Popular in Cultural Interactions in an Interdependent World
Popular in Jackson School of International Studies
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Pollard on Friday May 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JSIS 202 at University of Washington taught by Professor James Wellman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Cultural Interactions in an Interdependent World in Jackson School of International Studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 05/06/16
Secularism, Modernity and Fundamentalisms Monday, May 2, 2016 11:28 AM Modernity • Modernity begins in full force with the 18th century American and French Revolutions. It is a social cultural movement that resists tradition and emphasizes individualism, freedom and equality; it asserts that progress for humanity is possible through scie nce and technology; it develops forms of market economy, moving away from religiously legitimated feudalism and agrarian life and toward industry and urbanization - fostering forms of representative democracy, public education and professionalized bureaucr acies. Secularism, Secularization • All of the ideas and institutions of modernity emerge from within religion, but coalesce into a new worldview called secularism, which rejects religion's claim to govern them and attempts to limit the authority of religi on to the private sphere. • Secularization is thus a by -product of modernity and is the privatization of faith, demanding the separation of religion from state governance; this is often followed by the decline of the power of religion in politics, economy and society more generally. • Current generation is about twice as secular than previous generations. • Human rights are guaranteed by this secularization • Does culture always make rational sense? • Albian Sea (book) o We're a collection of cultures held together by a secular constitution Fundamentalism • Fundamentalism is a response to this secularization in order to re -assert that a single religion has authority over the market, state and specifically, over the individual. However, fundamentalists often accept other aspects of modernity aside from secularization. That is, fundamentalists' pick and choose parts of modernity (media, industry, and technology), which are a boon to Islamists (see Iran sacralizing atomic energy, or ISIS exploiting social media, both funded by the sale of oil), and Christian fundamentalists (except the Radical Reformers - Anabaptists), who use the products of media and modernity to secure their claims. • Deep fear among conservatives ("we lost our country") • Does Christianity define this c ountry? Post-Modernism A latecomer to this stream of thought, and is a critique of Enlightenment concepts of freedom, liberation and self-determination in human nature. Post modernists question the hegemony of modernist epistemology and interrogate how it fosters a cultural hegemony that disciplines the body rather than freeing it. Fundamentalisms and Nationalisms Wednesday, May 4, 2016 11:28 AM Secularism • Differenation of spheres • Laic and Judeo-Christian • Reaction: Civilization Conflict • Critique of Orientalism • Review Laic vs. Judeo-Christian secularism Fundamentalisms: Response to Secularism • Preservation of identity by the beleaguered • Christian and Islamic • Puritanical and literalistic • Patriarchal protest movement • "from now on no one will leave anyone else alone" o How do we deal with real differences? Enlightenment: Search for Rational Basis of Religion • It comes out of a response to bloodshed of the War of Religions, 1618 -1648: one third of Europe dead • Kant: "Rational religion." Attempt to overcome sectarianism, elevate universal philosophy • Morality anchored in law of morality vs. ecclesiastical faith • Kant, forerunner of secularism - elements of this in Francis Fukuyama o Key figure in Western philosophy Differentiation: Core of Secularization Theory • Emancipation of the secular spheres: o State (Hamilton and Jefferson) • Growth of states to monopolize means of violence o Economy (Adam Smith) • State power to regulate commerce and exchange • Utilitarian ethical model • Rise of capitalism, the commodification of resources • Marx (historical materialism) • Emancipation of the secular spheres: o Scientific revolution: everything can be questioned (nothing is sacred) • Autonomous method of obtaining/ verifying the truth, development of the scientific method • 20th century: the model research university • Marginalization of religion in the modern world: Forced cultural secularization: Different styles: o French style, more Laic, religion for humanity, Comte in France and Spencer in England, Soviet form o US style, more Judeo-Christian, American exceptionalism and manifest destiny - 19th century British colonialism Secularization: One response, the Clash of Civilization • Samuel Huntington thesis, 1993 • Huntington argues that civilization conflicts are particularly prevalent between Muslims and non-Muslims, identifying the bloody borders between Islamic and non -Islamic civilizations. This conflict dates back as far as the initial thrust of Islam into Europe and its eventual expulsion in the Iberian re -conquest and the attacks of the Ottoman Turks on Eastern Europe and Vienna. Critique of Civilization Conflict - Orient and Occident • East has moved east, and West has expanded. o "Orient" is derived from the Latin word oriens meaning "east"; "Occident" is derived from the Latin word occidens meaning "west". Critique of Huntington • Edward Said issued a response, "The Clash of Ignorance" • Omits the dynamic interdependency and interaction of cultures. • Said argues that the clash of civil izations thesis is an example of "the purest invidious racism, a sort of parody of Hitlerian science direction today against Arabs and Muslims." • Noam Chomsky: justification for the US "for any atrocities that they wanted to carry out" taking the place of the Cold War. Orient: Imperial Playground • From Napoleon's invasion of Egypt through the British Mandate of Palestine of the early and mid-twentieth century, first, French dominance, then British, and since WWII, the USA. o Israel is the largest object of US foreign largesses, 3billion per year o Egypt is second, nearly 2 billion o Deep roots now Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan. Orientalizing the Orient • Western projection on the Arab mind: o "England knows that Egypt cannot have self -government" o "Accuracy is abhorrent to the Oriental mind. Every Anglo -Indian should always remember that maxim." o "The Oriental reasoning is of the most slipshod description." o Balfour: • The Oriental is irrational, depraved. Rational Basis of Religion Creates Two Kinds o f Secularism • Rational religion of universal maxims used in each for of secularism o Laicism (French and European) and o Judeo-Christian secularism (American and British) Laic Secularism • Influential in France, Soviet Union, Turkey and China o Keep religion private o Legal powers of state used to discipline family and school o Create secular government and media o Produce secular citizens keeping religion in private realm o State pursues no • Religious goals • NO religiously defined goods Judeo Christian Secularism • Secularism described as religion that accommodates religion as ultimately good for democratic politics • Christianity led to secularism o It prevailed, as a secular form, because it distinguished God and Caesar, church and state, spiritual and temporal authori ty; helping develop freedom in Western civilization o Brings to the West a civilizational consciousness o Creating the highest form of citizens o American Civil Religion The "F" Word: Reaction to Secularism Fundamentalism and Oil Definition: "A religious way of being that manifests itself in a strategy by which beleaguered believers attempt to preserve their distinctive identity as a people or group in the face of modernity and secularization." IS fundamentalism fundamentally secular? Christian Protestant Fundamentals • Inerrancy of the Bible • Creation of all things ex nihilo by God • Authenticity of miracles • Virgin birth of Jesus • Crucifixion and bodily resurrection • Substitutionary atonement • Imminent return of Jesus to rule over the world Monkey Trial: ACLU vs. Tennessee Law "F" Word • Used by Orientalist, H.A.R. Gibb to describe Jamal al -Din al-Afghani, pan-Islamic reformer and activist • Islamic modernism, a form of Modernist Salafism - compared often with the rise of Wahhabism. o Three forms: quietists; activi sts; and jihadists (smallest group) "F" Word for Islam? • That European imperialism, having conquered India, now threatened the Middle East. Muhammad ibn 'Abd al -Wahhab 1703-1792 • His pact with Muhammad bin Saud helped to establish the first Saudi state • Purification of Islam teachings - early Salafism • Literalistic, puritanical approaches • Critical of Sufi practices • Purists, Activists (Sharia law) and Jihadists (.5%) Crisis of Modernity • Fundamentalism rejects pluralism and diversity which constitutes one of the defining characteristics of the modern world. Modernity pluralizes, introducing choices, where none existed before: o Hindu Fundamentalists Takeaways • Secularism o Differentiation of spheres o Laic and Judeo-Christian o Reaction: civilization conflict; o Critique of Orientalism • Fundamentalists: response to secularism o Preservation of identity by the beleaguered o Christian and Islamic o Puritanical and literalistic o Patriarchal protest movement o "From now on no one will leave anyone else alone." • How do we deal Religious Violence, Terrorism, and ISIS Friday, May 6, 2016 11:26 AM Modernity • Modernity begins in full force with the 18th century American and French Revolutions. o Emphasizes individualism, freedom and equality; and argues that progress for humanity is possible through science and technology; o Develops forms of market economy, moving away from religious Secularization • All of the ideas and institutions of modernity emerge from within religion , but coalesce into a new worldview called secularism. • Modernity rejects religion's claim to govern and limits the authority Fundamentalism • It re-asserts that a single religion has authority over the market, state, and specifically, over the individual. • They often accept other aspects of modernity aside from secularization - the use of media, industry, and technology • Technological advances a boon to Islamists (see Iran sacralizing atomic energy, or ISIS exploiting social media, both funded by the sale of oil) Violence inthe Middle East - Comparing Al Qaeda and ISIS Al Qaeda vs. ISIS • In interview with al Nusra group in Syria o Abu Muhammad al-Jolani, al Qaeda in Syria seeks to co -op secular and nationalist Syrian rebel groups, against Assad regime o Eschews Takfirist, a radial ISIS perspective… evidence of Al Qaeda's long game o Al Qaeda wants toe establish an emirate in Syria o Al-Baghdadi, head of ISIS, wants a Caliph that has no boundaries • The movement to resist ISIS is very real, but they're very powerful • Symbol of their violence: 9/11 • Distinguishing Al Qaeda and ISIS o Al Qaeda • Long Game: Caliphate will come some day • Vanguard movement creates global ideological revolution • Prime the pump: 911, spark, spread of fire assu med: did not anticipate America's response • Asymmetrical warfare: terrorist attacks; assuming that al Qaeda too weak to confront its enemies - started picking on apostate Arab regimes • Recruit the innocent and then radicalize them • Secret society, tough to jo in - soar and the masses would join - an apocalyptic vision… • When taking a city, not force an Islamic way of life • Has called ISIS's al -Baghdadi to submission o ISIS • Mix: Ultra-violence and civil society • Short term view: our time is now, we will win • Intimidation via violence works • Appeals to foreign fighters (males, 18 -30; immigrants, students) • Brotherhood; call to radicals • Pragmatic and utopian: Caliphate a present reality • July 2014: al Baghdadi's first audio lecture, using "victory" 21 times • Taking a city: establish "human security" in spirit of purity and obedience • Taking a city, regimes of crime and punishment, purity and destruction of non - Islamic entities • ISIS: Promise of Peace: Invitational, belong and find peace and utopia Management of Savagery: Responding to any resistance with extreme violence • Disruption and exhaustion o Damage economy and demoralize enemies • Management of Savagery o High visibility Call to Arbitrary Acts of Violence Religion is the most sustainable institution in the w orld • Religion: Its own center of power o In the modern world, this same system of symbolic and social boundaries is institutionalized, often forming its own center of power and authority, and moral worldview. Problem with Religion: Two modes, can't be co ntrolled • Source…deep well of joy, purpose and meaning - from which sustainable actions follow; expressed in : o Care o Nuture o Reproduction of group • Certainty…creates moral binaries: o Good and evil o Domination/subordination: • Gender, ethnicity et al. o Forms of higher authority o Teleological suspension of the ethical - leading to bad effect (dehumanization) What are the sources of religion's power? • Affective events/experiences • Plausible, though non-verifiable truth claims and rewards Affective Events: Internal Combustion Engine of Religion • The powerful affective events, experiences, and practices of religion, embodied in ritual action and mystical experience, formulated through systems of belief and story. o Endless Fuel Truth Claims • Plausible, though non verifiable truth claims and rewards o Confidence is always the big issue for religion/spiritual experience o Leadership nurtures confidence, spiced with this worldly and other worldly experiences What is the source of religious conflict/violence? Isomor phic with all social systems • Religions are extraordinarily flexible and plastic • Religions DANCE with power o Partnering the power o Becoming the power o Resisting the power Worldview, Leadership and Context How should we, USA or the world answer this movement? • If you're a national leader, should be afraid • Both al Qaeda and ISIS demonstrated ability ot do great violence. • IS this evil? o Moral evil" Deliberate violence against sentient beings o Natural evil: suffering caused by natur al means o Metaphysical evil: random suffering, or suffering by unjust systems
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