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PAM 2030, Week 14 Notes

by: Eunice

PAM 2030, Week 14 Notes PAM 2030

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Modernization, Population Change, Environment
Population and Public Policy
Professor Sassler
Class Notes
PAM, population
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eunice on Friday May 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PAM 2030 at Cornell University taught by Professor Sassler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.


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Date Created: 05/06/16
PAM 2030 Sassler Spring 2016 May 3, 2016 (Movie on China’s Development and Pollution)  iclicker: B, freshwater is most necessary element for sustainable food production  recall: discourse on dramatic population growth o Ehrlich’s prediction: population implosion  Modernization and Development’s Effects o high standard of living in US  globalized consumption  consumption and discarding  countries tend to aspire to the US level May 5, 2016  iclicker: B, David Lam is a boomster, Stan Becker is a doomster (studied the ecological problems from population)  Modernization, Population Change, Environment o modernization’s mechanism: decreases mortality and fertility o economic development and greater use of resources leads to waste products o wealth of a nation = natural resources + human resources o economic growth: increase in total amount of productivity  can occur without economic development if the population grows faster than the economy  theoretically economic development can occur without economic growth if population decreases o how is population related to economic development  Boomsters  population growth is stimulus to economic development  Boserup, Simon, a perspective popular until WWII  Lam: economic development reduces population growth o mark responses: demand increases will increase supply (agriculture) o innovation: technology increases production efficiency o globalization: increase in economic integration of countries o decreased fertility, school investments increases, increased productivity, smaller society  Doomsters  population growth is detrimental to economic development  Ehrlich, Hardin, Becker  change in age structure  population growth and economic development won’t continue long term  Neo-Marxists  there’s no relation between population growth and economic development o it’s a political thing, not a demographic thing o how population growth is a stimulus  Boserup: population density will increase in agricultural areas  leads to intensification o use of technology and more labor to get more harvest out of the same area  under-population is a barrier to development  farms can do anything with enough labor  utopian: even dry areas can be productive with drip irrigation and enough labor o other necessary resources for development  doomsters: resource depletion  “ultimate resource”: human ingenuity (Simon)  the Grand Bet: 1980, $10 Simon vs. Ehrlich  Simon: cost of minerals will go down o as the resource becomes more scarce, people will seek out new material and leave the market  Ehrlich: increased shortage leads to increased price  bet on metals price, Ehrlich lost o Demographers’ focus  population: incentives for smaller families  transformation in wealth  some countries (China) set policies  costs of raising more children bolsters China’s One Child policy  discussion of numbers leads to discussion of use of resources  balance between people and resources  most of history: food supply based on agricultural extensification o now, agriculture focuses on intensification  Green Revolution  High-Yield Varieties of wheat (HYV) (Borlaug)  costs: fertilizer, pesticides, irrigation in large amounts  fertilizer and pesticides require petroleum, irrigation requires fuel for pumping  cost expensive: leads to increased use of machinery, loss of agriculture jobs which leads to migration of rural dweller to cities o farm more land vs. harvest more from same amount of land  800 million+ people have inadequate access to food o but poverty has decreased, 1980-2000  what to do?  use GMOs (yield per acre)  reduce waste o don’t was water and fertilizer in growing food o don’t waste food once it’s grown  food distribution o must do better, eat more locally grown foods; import fewer foods  dietary changes o less meat o fewer waste calories  ecological footprint: biologically productive area required to produce the resources and absorb carbon output (carbon footprint)  Kuznet’s curve (people will pollute until they reach a certain point of wealth where they can afford to reverse the pollution and waste)


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