PAM 2030, Week 14 Notes
PAM 2030, Week 14 Notes PAM 2030
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eunice on Friday May 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PAM 2030 at Cornell University taught by Professor Sassler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.
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Date Created: 05/06/16
PAM 2030 Sassler Spring 2016 May 3, 2016 (Movie on China’s Development and Pollution) iclicker: B, freshwater is most necessary element for sustainable food production recall: discourse on dramatic population growth o Ehrlich’s prediction: population implosion Modernization and Development’s Effects o high standard of living in US globalized consumption consumption and discarding countries tend to aspire to the US level May 5, 2016 iclicker: B, David Lam is a boomster, Stan Becker is a doomster (studied the ecological problems from population) Modernization, Population Change, Environment o modernization’s mechanism: decreases mortality and fertility o economic development and greater use of resources leads to waste products o wealth of a nation = natural resources + human resources o economic growth: increase in total amount of productivity can occur without economic development if the population grows faster than the economy theoretically economic development can occur without economic growth if population decreases o how is population related to economic development Boomsters population growth is stimulus to economic development Boserup, Simon, a perspective popular until WWII Lam: economic development reduces population growth o mark responses: demand increases will increase supply (agriculture) o innovation: technology increases production efficiency o globalization: increase in economic integration of countries o decreased fertility, school investments increases, increased productivity, smaller society Doomsters population growth is detrimental to economic development Ehrlich, Hardin, Becker change in age structure population growth and economic development won’t continue long term Neo-Marxists there’s no relation between population growth and economic development o it’s a political thing, not a demographic thing o how population growth is a stimulus Boserup: population density will increase in agricultural areas leads to intensification o use of technology and more labor to get more harvest out of the same area under-population is a barrier to development farms can do anything with enough labor utopian: even dry areas can be productive with drip irrigation and enough labor o other necessary resources for development doomsters: resource depletion “ultimate resource”: human ingenuity (Simon) the Grand Bet: 1980, $10 Simon vs. Ehrlich Simon: cost of minerals will go down o as the resource becomes more scarce, people will seek out new material and leave the market Ehrlich: increased shortage leads to increased price bet on metals price, Ehrlich lost o Demographers’ focus population: incentives for smaller families transformation in wealth some countries (China) set policies costs of raising more children bolsters China’s One Child policy discussion of numbers leads to discussion of use of resources balance between people and resources most of history: food supply based on agricultural extensification o now, agriculture focuses on intensification Green Revolution High-Yield Varieties of wheat (HYV) (Borlaug) costs: fertilizer, pesticides, irrigation in large amounts fertilizer and pesticides require petroleum, irrigation requires fuel for pumping cost expensive: leads to increased use of machinery, loss of agriculture jobs which leads to migration of rural dweller to cities o farm more land vs. harvest more from same amount of land 800 million+ people have inadequate access to food o but poverty has decreased, 1980-2000 what to do? use GMOs (yield per acre) reduce waste o don’t was water and fertilizer in growing food o don’t waste food once it’s grown food distribution o must do better, eat more locally grown foods; import fewer foods dietary changes o less meat o fewer waste calories ecological footprint: biologically productive area required to produce the resources and absorb carbon output (carbon footprint) Kuznet’s curve (people will pollute until they reach a certain point of wealth where they can afford to reverse the pollution and waste)
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