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Rocks and Materials notes

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Rocks and Materials notes GSC 106

Marketplace > University of Miami > Science > GSC 106 > Rocks and Materials notes
User_19183_profile7443 Notetaker
GPA 3.571
Geological impacts on society
Teresa Hood

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A week of notes after the first midterm.
Geological impacts on society
Teresa Hood
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Notetaker on Friday March 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GSC 106 at University of Miami taught by Teresa Hood in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Geological impacts on society in Science at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 03/20/15
GSC Rocks And Minerals Rocks are made of minerals 0 Some rocks are made of only 1 mineral monomineralic Ex Limestone rock is made of calcite mineral 0 Most rocks are made of several minerals polyminearlic Ex Granite countertop is made of quartz feldspars and micas Mineralogy the study of minerals How do you qualify as a mineral 1 Solid at room temperature NOT mercury 2 Inorganic 3 Have a speci c chemical composition Certain atomselements present in certain proportions Ex Calcite CaCO3 0 Ex Quartz Si02 4 Have a characteristic crystal structure Atoms are arranged in a speci c fashion 0 Ex Diamond and graphite pencil lead are both made of elemental carbon chemical formula c o The difference between the diamond in your ring and the lead in your pencil are due to 1 He way the atoms are arranged amp 2 The strength of the bonds between them 5 Naturally formed not synthetic Mineral identi cation Most minerals can be distinguished from one another by their physical properties Some properties are more useful than others 1 Color 0 Due to the way the mineral interacts with light o Is usually due to chemical composition sometimes just minute impurities Can be characteristic always the same for the mineral but usually is not 0 Ex Characteristics sulfur is always yellow 0 Ex NOT Corundum Al203 Red Ruby trace Cr Blue Sapphire trace Ti 2 Streak 0 Ex NOT Quartz Si02 can have a wide range of colors depending on which impurities are present Color of nely powdered mineral Obtained by scraping mineral against unglazed ceramic plate Less variable than overall color 0 Ex Hematite streakbrownish red 3 Density weightvolume Density of water 1gcc Density is a measure of how much heavier a mineral is than an equal volume of water Density of a mineral depends on A Composition Atomic weight Zn 64 Pb 207 Mineral Sphalerite Zns Galena Pbs Density 40 75 B Atomic quotpackingquot How closely packed the atoms are make it more dense Graphite C 22 density diamond C 35 density Estimating density 0 Density 2 or less light for a rock 0 Density 34 like an average rock 0 Density 5 or more heavy for a rock 4 Magnetic susceptibility 5 Hardness 0 If attracted to a hand magnet magnetic 0 Ex Magnetite Fe304 Other less susceptible minerals can be separated with more powerful electromagnets 0 Ex Garnets Resistance to scratching Moh39s Hardness Scale 0 Scale of relative hardness 0 From 1 softest talc to 10 hardest diamond o Logarithmic scale base 2 Each on scale is twice as hard as previous Test for hardness by seeing what scratches what Can test using o A Common materials of known hardness Quartz 7 Calcite 3 o B Household items Steel knife 55 Penny 35 6 Effervescence reaction with HCI Fizzes when exposed to Hydrochloric acid HCI 0 Ex Calcite CaCO3 Acid frees carbon dioxide gas C02 7 Fluorescence Mineral glows emits visible light when exposed to ultraviolet rays or xrays 0 Ex Fluorite CaF2 0 Ex Calcite Rocks Most rocks are made of minerals Some are made of glass volcanic glass obsidian Some are made of organic matter 0 Ex Coal amber Rock Classi cation Classi ed according to how they formed 3 types of rock 1 Igneous quotignisquot re Formed when molten rocks cools and solidi es 2 Metamorphic quotmetaquot change quotmorphquot form Preexisting rocks change to new ones because of increased temperaturespressure 3 Sedimentary Formed from fragments of previously existing nodes at Earth s surface Igneous Rocks Formed by solidi cationquotfreezingquot of molten rock Lavasmagmas freezes between 650 C and 1100 F depends on composition 0 Home ovens max temperatures are 260 C and 500 F Magma that cools in magma chamber below surface pluton exposed at surface after uplift and erosion 0 Ex Mountain Rushmore South Dakota 4 Presidents 0 Ex Stone Mountain Georgia 0 Big group of plutons batholith 0 Usually granite form 1520 miles deep 0 Often form the core of mountain ranges Ex Sierra Nevada batholith W US 0 Emplaced 100 million years ago when all of coast was experiencing subduction coasts went farther east than today 0 Includes Yosemite Biggest cooled lava formations ood basalts basalt black negrained igneous rock 0 Ex Columbia River ood basalts Washington Oregon and Idaho Started erupting out of giant cracks in the ground about 15000 years ago and stopped 2000 years ago Includes quotCrater of the Moonquot national park Idaho Largest ood basalts quotTrapsquot are probably the result of quotsuperplumesquot coming from the core mantle boundary 0 Two biggest Traps Siberian Traps in Russia and Deccan Traps in India are associated with the 2 biggest mass extinctions in Earth39s history Volcanic neck exposed throat of volcano magma solidi es in vent outlasts surrounding volcano 0 Ex Shiprock New Mexico 0 Ex Devil s tower Wyoming Columnarjointing o Columnar jointing Polygonal columns formed by contractions as lavamagma cools Igneous rocks are subdivided according to their composition Source SiOZ Color Name Continental crust quot quot Lighter Silicic quot Increasin quot g Oceanic crust quot quot Ma c quot Increasin quot g Mantle quot quot Darker Ultrama c Rare and precious minerals tend to be concentrated at the ends Ultrama c 1 Mineral olivine named for olivegreen color 0 Ex Form deep under Hawaii in magma Magma brings crystals to surface Explosive eruption right at sea s edge ash cools lava to shards of volcanic glass which blow away in sea breeze Heavier olivine crystals drop out become concentrated by wave action 0 Green sand beach 0 Mantle rock made entirely of olivine is called peridotite 0 Gem quality olivine peridot 2 Diamonds 0 Form at high pressures and temperatures only found in mantle and meteorite impacts Depth gt150 km amp temperature gt1500 C 0 Found in quotKimberlite Pipesquot Narrow vertical injections of mantle material into crust Best known Kimberlite Pipes are in South Africa Kimberly 0 Use magnetic and electric eld differences to nd hidden pIpes Diamond mines and mining o 1 Africa 0 1st pipes found on DeBeers farm in South Africa 0 Namibia diamonds weather out of ancient pipes have been transported by rivers to coasts are found in beach sands 0 Botswana DeBeers plant at recently discovered pipe is designed so that workers never touch a gem 0 Sierra Leone pipes are located in an area controlled by quotRevolutionary United Frontquot Con ict diamonds or Blood diamonds o 2 Russia Mir diamond mine northern Siberia 0 2000 feet deep when mine closed 2001 0 Trucks taking 90 minutes to reach surface 0 3 Australia Argyle 0 Currently most productive diamond mine in world 0 Source of all pink diamonds Diamond has an octahedral crystal form double pyramid Why do we cut facet them into speci c shapes 0 Taking advantage of certain properties of the mineral to maximize its Brilliance Color As light passes through different materials its speed changes 0 Speed of light in a vacuum 186000 miles per second ls always lower passing through anything else Refractive Index 0 RI speed of vacuum speed in substance 0 RI is always greater than 1 RI Air 10003 Water 133 Quartz 154 Diamond 241 The higher the value of the RI the slower the light travels within that medium Effects of Refractive Index 1 Path of light is refracted bent when passing between substances with different Rl s 2 Critical angle 0 Light rays approaching an interface at an angle greater than the material s critical angle are re ected bounced back instead of refracted 0 Critical angle depends on RI diamond s high RI makes it especially good at capturing and focusing light 0 Maximizing brilliance of a gem is all about geometry 0 Gem faceting design To maximize the brilliance of a gem cut facets so that as much light as possible is internally re ected and focused back out through the top of the stone crown towards the eye of the viewer Don39t want light rays quotleaking outquot through bottom of stone pavilion Best gem design for maximizing diamond s brilliance brilliant cut 58 facets Other Igneous Materials 3 Platinum 0 Rarer and more expensive than gold 0 Combined with gold to make quotwhite goldquot jewelry 0 Found in lower layers of ultrama c quotlayered igneous complexesquot As minerals form in magma settle to bottom 0 Gets layers of different minerals from earliest bottom to latest formed 0 Ex Bushveld Complex South Africa Richest soured of platinum Silicic igneous formations o Impurity elements get concentrated in silicic magmas don t quotfitquot into common minerals 0 Very last magmatic uids have high concentrations of unusual elements Formation of many rarer minerals in lastformed rocks pegmatites Pegmamtite Gems Topaz contains F Tourmaline Contains F B Li 0 quotWatermelon tourmalinequot Beryl contains beryllium aquamarine blue morganite pink emerald green 0 Alexandrite 0 Rare colorchanging quotpleochroicquot version of mineral chrysoberyl 0 Light scattering from trace chromium in mineral Green in daylight Redviolet in arti cial light Metamorphic rocks Metamorphism commonly create 1 Foliation parallel surfaces or layers Ex Slate and Gneiss 2 Characteristic minerals only created under speci c pressure temperature conditions Ex Garnets 0 Highly variable formula creates range of colors 0 Mali garnet is greenish to brownish yellow discovered in Mall 1994 Melanite black variety of the rare andradite garnet Marble metamorphosed limestone Metasomatism reaction with hot solutions changes rock 0 Gem quality red ruby Hughes quality rubies Burma Myanmar Fuoresce in red even from UV in sunlight Dichoric 2 colors slightly different shade of red depending on crystal orientation quotasterismquot star rubies sapphires tiny inclusions of mineral rutile lined up in crystal structurecut stone down caxis in cabochon rounded top host rock for ruby and sapphire zoisite gem quality zoisite tanzanite Tanzanite naturally green heating changes it to a deep purpleblue World39s largest supply comes from lsq mile in Tanzania 0 All other colors gem quality sapphire Sedimentary rocks Rock formed at or near earth39s surface from fragments or dissolved constituents of preexisting rocks Sediment fragments of ore existing rocks They made un lt1 of earth39s mass but gt 80 of earth39s surface 1 Clastic sedimentary rocks Rock fragments cemented together Sediment Rock Gravel or larger Conglomerate Sand Sandstone Mudclay Shale Gold precipitates with quartz in veins from silicic magmas Erosion and transport running water concentrates gold into nuqdets in placer deposits Process of extracting gold from ore veins uses mercury or cyanide both of which are highly toxic when released into the environment


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