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L9 Animal Nutrition & Digestion

by: Yuran Liu

L9 Animal Nutrition & Digestion ASCI 112

Yuran Liu
Cal Poly
GPA 3.67

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L9 Animal Nutrition & Digestion
Principles of Animal Science
Professor Burroughs
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yuran Liu on Saturday May 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASCI 112 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Professor Burroughs in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Principles of Animal Science in Animal Science at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.

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Date Created: 05/07/16
Animal Nutrition & Digestion ASCI 112 11/3  Digestion  What does digestion entail 需需?  Ingestion (需需) of food  Digestion  I.e. reduction of complex materials to simple compounds that cells can use. Usually involves a combination or a series of mechanical and chemical processes over time.  Mechanical: Chewing  Chemical: acids, enzymes  Absorption (需需) across digestive tract walls to the bloodstream, and then across cellular membranes. (Needs ATP)  Elimination of solid wastes – primarily undigested food and sloughed digestive tract cells.  Nutrition  Is the science of understanding how animals and people convert foods to their chemical components (nutrients), and use (metabolize) them for maintenance, growth, and production.  Six types of nutrients  Proteins  Organic 需需需 has a carbon based core  Major classes  Essential (can’t be synthesized internally) (must eat to obtain)  Non-essential (can be synthesized from amino acids) (需需需需需)  Uses  Structures (muscle)  Biochemical processes (enzymes 需需 speed up reaction)  Energy (less net than carbohydrates & fats)  Mainly constructed from C-H-O-N, with lesser amounts of S & P  Carbohydrates  Organic  Major classes  Monosaccharides 需需  Disaccharides 需需  Polysaccharides 需需  Digestible (alpha bonded) – starch, glycogen  Indigestible (to eukaryotes; beta bonded) – cellulose 需需需需需需需需需需, hemicellulose 需需需需 需需 需 bonded 需需需需需需需需需需需需  Cows don’t digest cellulose; the microorganisms in cows’ gut (bacteria) digest cellulose.  Uses  Fuel (energy) - monosaccharides  Molecular skeletons (ex. Ribose, deoxyribose)  Plant cell walls (beta-glucose)  Lipids (fats/oils)  Organic  Major classes  Fatty acids  Saturated 需需  Unsaturated 需需需  Phospholipids  Steroids  Uses  Fuel (energy)  2.5x more energy per gram than carbohydrates (because fats have more hydrogen and less oxygen)  Animal cell membranes  Vitamin storage (Vitamin A, D, E, K) fat soluble vitamin  Vitamins  Organic  Major classes  Fat soluble (A, D, E, K) (can be stored in fat)  Too much or not enough can cause problems.  Water soluble  Uses  Catalysts (需需需) in biochemical reactions  Many regulatory functions  Animals vary in their dietary requirements for vitamins. This may be related to the kinds and numbers of microorganisms in their digestive tract (many of which are capable of synthesizing one or more of the vitamins)  Some vitamins require activation.  Minerals  Inorganic (not made of C & H)  Major classes  Macro-Minerals (needed in abundance) 需需需需  Micro-Minerals (needed in small amounts) 需需需需  Uses  Physical structures  Catalysts in biochemical reactions  Some minerals can interact  Interference (需需)/antagonism (需需)  Synergy (需需)  Vitamin-Mineral Interactions  Example: Vitamin & Selenium  Deficiency of either leads to “white muscle disease” in some animals  Nature of the relationship is still uncertain  Water  Inorganic  Uses  Transport medium (需需)  Chemical reagent (需需需)  Temperature regulation  Cow’s example: Drink more, eat more.  Essential nutrients  Nutrients that are 1)required, but 2) cannot be synthesized (manufactured) in the body  Examples  Carbohydrates  None identified  Amino acids  8 identified, include phenylalanine, lysine  Fats  2 identified, linoleic acid (需需需) and alpha-linolenic acid (α-需需需)  Vitamins  13 identified, include Vitamin A and Vitamin B  Minerals  Macro – all required (Ca, Mg, P, K)  Micro – some debate continues, but 6 are often named (Fe, Zn, Cu, I, Se, Mo)  Main uses of nutrients  Maintenance  Energy and components sufficient to support the baseline physiological functions of an animal at its present size.  Homeostasis  Growth  Additional energy/components needed to increase an animal’s size at some rate (lbs./day, for instance) feed conversion ratio 需需需需需需需需需需需需需  Work/Production  Additional energy/components needed to support greater physiological functions of an animal than are needed for maintenance or growth at its present size.  Lactation (需需需)  Strenuous physical exertion (需需需需)  Immune system responses  Balancing Energy  Net Maintenance Growth, Production, Work Gross Energy 需需 Digestible Energy Metabolizable Energy Usable energy Net Energy Energy System Digestive Systems & Basic Anatomy ASCI 112 11/10  Modes of feeding  Continuous feeders (Spend most of the time eating)  Examples  Blue whale (No teeth but baleen 鲸鲸)  Also grazing animals (鲸鲸鲸鲸)  Most common in animals that consume either or both  Low quality foodstuffs (like grasses)  Foodstuffs that are scattered (鲸鲸) in small quantities across large areas.  Discontinuous feeders (meal eaters)  Example  Eagle  Most common in animals that  Eat high quality foodstuffs (like fruit, eggs, or other animals)  Eat foodstuffs that are commonly available in bulk  Diets  Herbivore (鲸鲸鲸鲸)  Carnivore (鲸鲸鲸鲸)  Omnivore (鲸鲸鲸鲸)  Insectivore – insects (鲸鲸鲸鲸)  Frugivore – fruit (鲸鲸鲸鲸)  Mucivore – mucus/sap (鲸鲸鲸鲸)  Granivore – seeds (鲸鲸鲸鲸)  Ossivore – bone  Piscivore – fish (鲸鲸鲸鲸)  Ovivore – eggs  Detritivore – dead stuff (鲸鲸鲸鲸)  Folivore – leaves (鲸鲸鲸鲸)  Fungivore – fungi (鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸)  Planktivore – plankton (鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸)  Sanguivore – blood  Even though zoologists have categorized animals according to their main dietary preferences, this does not mean that these types of foods are all they eat.  Harvesting equipment  Ruminant  Examples: cattle, deer, sheep, goats, elk, antelope  No cutting teeth.  Molars (鲸鲸) are adapted for grinding grasses and similar plants.  Have lower incisors (biting teeth) (鲸鲸) but not upper incisors.  Instead they have a “dental pad.” (firm thick pad of gum-like material)  Omnivore mammals  Examples: bear, pig  Incisors in the front, canines (鲸鲸)/cuspids and grinding teeth (molars) in the rear.  Herbivore  Example: horse (grazers)  Have incisors teeth on both upper and Cow鲸grazer鲸 lower jaws   Especi al long grinding teeth  Carnivores  Examples: red fox, lion, dolphin  Molars on the fox and lion could be used for crushing/grinding some plant matter, but they are sharper and more jagged (鲸鲸鲸) than those possessed by herbivores.  Dolphins and many other carnivorous cetaceans (鲸鲸鲸鲸) mainly use their teeth simply for catching things (fish, squid, etc.) Their teeth are conical (鲸鲸鲸) in design.  鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸  Digestive tracts – Compared  Same basic components: gastric stomach, small intestine, large intestine (with the cecum (鲸鲸) at the beginning of it)  Compared in volume/length from simplest and smallest to most complex and longest  Carnivores 鲸 Omnivores 鲸 Herbivores  Cecum 鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸 microbiofermotation  Where bacteria can hang out in the lower digest tract, and undigested plant fibers tend to collect  The place where can find bacteria living on plant materials  Will find microorganisms living through the large intestine  Herbivorous animals have the largest cecum. ruminants | fore-gut fermenters: rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum   Anatomy of the digestive tract  Mouth  Captures food  Physical breakdown (mastication) (鲸鲸)  Salivary amylase (鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸) 鲸鲸enzyme  Esophagus  Transfers food to stomach (and in some, vice versa) (鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸 鲸鲸)  Birds have a large pouch in the esophagus called the “crop” (鲸鲸鲸) which is used to store food in.  Ruminants have a large storage tank at the base of the esophagus called the “reticulo-rumen” (鲸鲸) that they use for microbial fermentation of their food.  Stomach  Initial chemical degradation  HCI  Pepsin (鲸鲸鲸鲸)  Small intestine  Continued chemical breakdown  Bile (鲸鲸)  Fat emulsification (鲸鲸)  Pancreatic NaHCO ne3tralizes chime (鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸)  Enzymes  Nutrient absorption villus 鲸鲸鲸: increase potential absorption for food  Large intestine  Parts  Cecum (鲸鲸)  Colon (鲸鲸)  Rectum (鲸鲸)  Anus 鲸鲸  Functions  Absorbs water, salts, water-soluble vitamins, and some other “small” molecules (incl VFAs). NOT protein. (large molecules)  Collects waste for elimination  In many herbivores and omnivores (to a lesser extent), microbial fermentation (鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸) of plant fiber and other materials indigestible to the animal (raffinose) (鲸鲸鲸) occurs in the cecum and colon.  Volatile fatty acids (鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸) are excreted as waste products by bacteria, which some animals can recover energy from.  Special case of herbivores  None produce the enzymes needed to break down β-bonded cellulose and hemicellulose.  Therefore herbivores, particularly those that live on plant structures like leaves and young twigs, must find ways to let cellulase (鲸鲸鲸鲸)- producing bacteria do that work for them. (including insects, like termites (鲸鲸))  Common herbivore strategies  Foregut systems  Ruminant  Camelids (鲸鲸)  Hoatzin (鲸鲸)  Hindgut systems  Caecal/colonic fermenters  Equines, elephants, hippos, rhinos, etc. (mostly big or very big animals)  Copraphagy  Many rodents (鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸) – some recovery of nutrients (mostly protein) lost to intestinal digestion/absorbtion  Caecotrophy  Lagomorphs (鲸鲸鲸鲸) – partitioning of feces into “waste” and “recycle” forms. Increases protein recovery efficiency.  Anatomy of the ruminant digestive tract (foregut system)  Rumen (鲸鲸) → Reticulum (鲸鲸鲸) → Omasum (鲸鲸鲸) → Abomasum (鲸鲸)  Camels are plumbed the same, except they have no omasum.  A note on herbivore digestion – VFA  Microbes break cellulose down in order to use it for their own energy and protein formation. Their herbivore hosts must live on their leftovers/wastes. 鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸鲸VFA  Among the waste products of microbial cellulose fermentation are “volatile fatty acids” (VFAs)  The liver can convert VFAs to glucose, fatty acids, and other usable energy currencies. So herbivores must collect and cycle VFAs through the liver in order to cash them in.  Hindgut 鲸鲸鲸鲸 fermenters 鲸鲸鲸  Like ruminants, hindgut fermenters recover VFAs produced by microbial fermentation of cellulose. Then they are transported to the liver, where they are converted into glucose and fatty acids.  Foregut fermenters absorb VFAs through the rumen.  Hindgut fermenters absorb VFAs through the cecum/colon.  Unlike ruminants, most microbial protein is lost because there are no enzymes available past the small intestine for breaking proteins down, nor can they, or other large molecules, be absorbed from the large intestine (this is another benefit of copraphagy & cecotropy)  Avian 鲸鲸鲸 digestive tract  Esophagus  Thin-walled and highly folded. Larger than in mammals.  Food often swallowed in large pieces.  The crop (鲸鲸鲸), which is an “outpouching” of the esophagus, stores foods for later processing or sharing with young.  Stomach  Has two parts, which are just thin-walled sacs in carnivorous species  Proventriculus (i.e. “before the ventriculus”)  Glandular, producing both acid and enzymes  Ventriculus (“Gizzard” 鲸鲸)  Muscular part of the stomach  Grinds food into smaller particles for digestion  Large in herbivorous, garnivorous species  Small intestine  Main organ of digestion and absorption.  Receives pancreatic secretions of  Bicarbonate (鲸鲸鲸鲸)  Proteases (鲸鲸鲸)  Amylase (鲸鲸鲸)  Lipase (鲸鲸鲸)  Receives liver secretions of  Bile salts  Ceca (鲸鲸鲸鲸)  “Blind” pouches at junction of small and large intestines  Site of microbial fermentation  Vitamin production  Nitrogen conversion to protein by microbes, with some absorption across cecal walls  Involved in re-absorption of water and salts  Birds have two paired ceca instead of a single cecum.  Large intestine (colon)  Absorbs water and stores feces  Cloaca  Fecal exit


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