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Chapter 47 Combined Lecture and Textbook Notes with Learning Objectives

by: Courtney Moeller

Chapter 47 Combined Lecture and Textbook Notes with Learning Objectives BIO 162

Marketplace > California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo > Biology > BIO 162 > Chapter 47 Combined Lecture and Textbook Notes with Learning Objectives
Courtney Moeller
Cal Poly
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About this Document

These notes cover all the material from Chapter 47 that could be present on Exam II
Introduction to Organismal Form and Function
Emily Taylor
Class Notes
Biology, learning, Objectives, Chapter, 47, animals, sensory, Systems




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Moeller on Saturday May 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 162 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Emily Taylor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Organismal Form and Function in Biology at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 05/07/16
47.1 47.2 47.3 47.4 47.5 Still have Questions? Find these notes confusing? Need extra help? Contact me at or by cell phone at (858)-361-1035 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Page 2 1 Describe the process by which various tastes are sensed. 2 Describe how smells are sensed. 3 Identify how pheromones coordinate physiological and behavioral  variables among conspecifics, focusing on honeybees and humans. 4 Describe how some aquatic organisms utilize the lateral line system  to detect the presence of prey, predators, and/or mates in the  surrounding water. 5 Describe the process of sound sensation, from the outer ear to the  inner ear, then within the inner ear. 6 Describe the structure and function of the insect eye. 7 Describe the structure and function of the vertebrate eye. How is an  image transduced into a visual nervous signal? 8 Diagram how retinal (in photopsin or rhodopsin) is converted into an active form by light. 9 Identify the differences between color and black­and­white visual  sensation. 10 Predict some species of animals that might have stronger color or  black­and­white vision than others. 11 Give examples of animals that utilize the following senses: ­ sensation of ultraviolet radiation ­ thermoreception ­ electroreception ­ magnetoreception 47.1 SENSORY ORGANS ­Ability to sense a change in the environment depends on ­Transduction: conversion of an external stimulus to an internal signal ­Amplification ­Transmission ­Transduction requires a sensory cell which are made up of different receptors  throughout the body ­Mechanoreceptors: respond to distortion caused by pressure ­Photoreceptors: respond to different wavelengths of light ­Thermoreceptors: detect changes in temperature ­Nociceptors: sense harmful stimuli such as tissue injury ­Electroreceptors: detect electric fields ­Magnetoreceptors: detect magnetic fields ­Interpreting Information ­receptors cells tend to be highly specific ­each sensory neuron sends its signal to a specific portion of the brain 47.2 MECHANORECEPTION Page 3 ­sensation of pressure changes ­Ex. Statocyst is a crab organ that tells the brain when the crab is not  upright. Receptor cells send messages to the brain to position the crab  upright. Page 4 ­Sensing sound waves is done through direct physical pressure on a plasma  membrane  ­Hair cells ­found in vertebrates Learning Objective #5 ­have ion channels that respond to pressure (pressure­receptor cells) ­have stiff outgrowths called stereocilia which are actually microvilli  reinforced by   actin filaments ­also contain a single kinocilium: an arrangement of microtubules ­Hearing: The Mammalian Ear ­hearing is a sensation produced by wavelike changes in air pressure  (sound) ­The ear transduces waves into action potentials that send information to  the brain ­Three structures: the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear ­Outer ear (collection): collects incoming pressure waves and funnels them  into the ear canal ­Waves hit the tympanic membrane (separates the outer and middle ear) ­The tympanic membrane vibrates back and forth in response to the  pressure wave that hit it.  ­These vibrations are passed to the middle ear (amplification) which  consists of ear ossicles (tiniest bones in the body) ­The last of these bones, the stapes, continues the vibration into the oval  window which separates the middle ear from the inner ear.  ­The inner ear (detection), composed of fluid, send the sound waves which  vibrates against the cochlea, consists of hair cells on the basilar membrane that send the signal to the brain ­In summary: Sound moves collects in the outer ear in the ear canal  these waves hit the tympanic membranethe vibrations travel to the ear ossicles  in the middle ear the stapes, the last bones, vibrates these pressure  waves on the oval window the oval window continues the vibrations into  the inner ear and onto the cochlea which has hair cells suspended in  liquidneurotransmitters are released to interpret the sound ­Ex. Bats have large ears to capture high frequencies (ultrasonic) in their  ear canal  Bats rely on hearing ­Lateral Line System Utilization Learning Objective ­in fish and some amphibians, hair cells are embedded along the length of  #4 the body ­These hair cells can detect pressure changes, from water, other animals,  or environmental stimuli Page 5 ­In this way, fish and other predator can hunt at night by responding to  pressure waves. Prey can escape using the same methods Learning Objective #6 47.3 PHOTORECEPTION: SENSING LIGHT Page 6 ­The Insect Eye ­insects have very advanced eye called the compound eye, which allows  them to see in all directions ­ommatidia: light sensing columns that focus and resolve incoming light ­functional units of the compound eye ­each contains its own receptor cells ­Vertebrate Eye Learning Objective #7, ­humans rely on eyesight 8, 9, 10 ­Structure: ­sclera: outermost layer, “white of the eye” ­cornea: found in front of the sclera and is a transparent sheet of  connective tissue that bends the light ­iris: a pigmented, round muscle that an control the amount of  incoming light ­pupil: hole for light to enter ­lens: structure behind pupil that bends light ­retina: back of the eye consisting of photoreceptor cells that  process an image ­Retina ­Composed of Photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells,  and an the optic nerve (ordered from back to front) ­light hits photoreceptor cells made of rods and cones ­rods: see dim shades ­cones: see’s color, requires bright light ­stimulation of photoreceptor cells leads to bipolar and ganglion  cell activation ­ganglion cells are neurons that pass signals to axons along the  optic nerve ­Rods and Cones ­made up of proteins called opsins which are made of proteins  called retinal ­retinal + opsin = Rhodopsin ­ rods and cones contain different opsins ­S opsin senses purple and blue ­M opsin senses green and yellow ­L opsin senses red and orange ­color blind people lack M or L opsin, or both Page 7 ­In darkness, the opsin protein is in the cis conformation. When  light hits the protein, opsin changes shape to trans and activates  Transducin, which closes the Sodium gated­ion channel ­Figure 47.13 ­In darkness:  ­sodium­gated ion channel is open ­Sodium current depolarizes the membrane ­Rhodopsin is in the cis conformation ­In light: ­sodium­gated ion channel closes ­hyperpolarization of membrane ­Rhodopsin changes to trans which starts activation of  transducing ­ Animals vision can vary based on the type of opsin, and number of cones and rods 47.4 CHEMORECEPTION ­ occurs when chemicals bind to chemoreceptors to initiate an action potential ­Gustation: sense of taste ­Olfaction: sense of smell ­chemoreceptors can detect the presence of a particular molecule by undergoing a  change in membrane potential ­Taste Learning Objective #1 ­taste buds on the tongue consist of many tiny taste cells ­sensation of saltiness due to sodium ions dissolved in food that depolarize  the cells membrane ­sourness is due to the presence of H+ protons which also depolarize the  membrane ­Bitterness is detected in the substance PTC  ­the ability to detect this is inheritable  ­Olfaction Learning Objective ­epithelial cells line the nose that contains chemoreceptors #2 ­The molecules enter the nose and into a mucus layer. There they activate  olfactory neurons by binding to membrane­bound receptor proteins. Axons  from these neurons project up the olfactory bulb to the brain ­pheromone: chemical that is secreted in the environment and affected the physiology of animals of the same specie Learning Objective ­can alert other members of the same species of an intruder or  #3 signal that a female is ovulating (bees) ­undetermined whether humans produce pheromones 47.5 OTHER SENSORY ORGANS ­Thermoreception ­detection of heart to maintain homeostasis (shivering or sweating) Learning Objective ­Nociceptor: a different receptor that only receives extreme temperatures  #11 and can also sense pain ­Thermoreceptors are located on the skin and in the central nervous system (hypothalamus) Page 8 ­Some thermoreceptors (ultra violet radiation) can detect the heat of prey  and use this to hunt (pit vipers) Learning Objective #12 ­Electroreception ­many fish use electroreception since water is a good conductor ­Lateral Line system uses electroreception with the ampullae of Lorenzini  ­allows fish and sharks to detect prey that are far away or even buried in the sand ­electrogenic fishes: have specialized organs near their tails that generate electric  fields which helps them locate prey ­Magnetoreception ­animals can detect the earth’s magnetic field for direction such as  migratory behavior


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