Cultural Anthropology 104
Cultural Anthropology 104 ANTHRO 104
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by y-chen9 on Saturday May 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHRO 104 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Dr. Falina Enriquez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 05/07/16
Anthropology Notes #7 The Spectacular Favela, Chapter 4: The Tourists “Tours are not so much about the favela itself as about what Rocinha can reveal to tourists, about tourists” (136). “Zoological effect” Lennon and Foley – “Dark Tourism”: Tourism in places associated with violence and death, claim that the practice is organized around the contemplation of the failures of modernity “The tourism caters to the market” (121). Tours are conducted in English while the people their speak Portuguese. The people therefore can’t correct false information that the tour guides give out. Neoliberalism o Economy philosophy about maximizes profits/free trade at all costs o Market will “correct” itself If a company is low quality products, consumers will not buy them. Competition brings the best companies out Neoliberalism and cultural effects o Neoliberalism reduces citizenship to consumption o The privatization of public property means less area for things like protesting o If citizenship = consumption, then less money means less ability to participate in and have control over life The Spectacular Favela, Chapter 5: Peace “In this chapter I draw on ethnographic material from several distinct movements: the pre-pacified favela between 2008 and 2010, the immediate argue that there are three central ways in which Rocinha is being reordered under the aegis of pacification: o 1) Through the implementation of new forms of state-led security o 2) Through changes to community infrastructure, and o 3) Through the opening of the favela economy to corporate interests” (139) PAC = Programma de Aceleracao do Crescimento = “Underdeveloped areas for improvement” o “A political performance for outside audiences, tied to party politics and election cycles” o Many were suspicious of the project—the rua nova, new road was suspected to be built to be wide so large tanks and other military vehicles could come in o Paint were bright, and street signs named “happiness”, “love”, “peace” Residents said the favela now wears “makeup” that masks its true imperfections Gentrification is a general term for the arrival of wealthier people in an existing urban district, a related increase in rents and property values, and other changes. o Government offered residents near the new road money so they could make room for the road. But residents found that this money was not enough to buy a house now since there was now “rent of over 100 percent, leaving hundreds of families homeless” (148). PAC built an urgent care center, sports complex and a footbridge over the freeway adjacent to the favela “The projects instead proved to be attention-grabbing publicity centerpieces developed without local consultation” (149) “Pacification of the economy frames favela markets in two crucial ways. First, it disrupts local economies and extracts taxes from a previously unregulated system, increasing state revenue. Second, it captures new consumer markets, thereby generating corporate wealth” (150) Shock of Order: Aggressive economic formalization issued by the government o No selling bikinis on the beach” Economic pacification lead to more chain stores, such as Casas Bahia “Pacification has created insecurity through the promotion of security” (156). Lecture 18: Chapter 4 (Tourists) & Chapter 5 (Peace) Formal Economies o Legal, rely on institutional trade agreements, treaties o Standardized price and quality o Based on currency o Tied to stock market Informal economies o Outside government o May involve bartering Before Pacification (informal economy): Many mom and pop stores, pirated cable/internet provided by traffickers, few people with credit cards After Pacification (formal economy): Many chain stores, like Casas Bahia, cable/internet through formal companies, increased access to credit because favela integrated with formal city However, favela economy is still formal and informal o Traffickers are selling cable/internet door-to-door along with illegal goods o People are renting gov-issued housing to tourists o Economic formalization in Rocinha gentrification (housing market has gone up) o Traffickers from pacified favelas flee to peripheral areas Globalization in the favela o Pacifying the favela integrates Rio and citizens into globalized economy o For example, getting credit cards have domestic and international aspects Pacification has mixed results o Economic formalization combined with improvement projects o Growth acceleration program $ for infrastructure o Urgent care centers are understaffed and lack supplies o Sports complex recently built. People thought Rocinha residents would get jobs, but only outsides work in the sports complex Improvement projects are mostly symbolic o No actual local input o Residents would have wanted better sewage system, but that never would have happened since a new sewage system is not spectacular o Projects = spatial pacification: re/moving/locating poor people, spectacles of state power SP = hegemony bc convince people state intervention is in their interest SP gentrifies Rocinha & improves Rio’s reputation Tourism o Growth in Brazilian tourism industry Favela tourism o Very violent, integral to Favela Inc. o Favela tourism economic and representational violence in two major ways Enriches outsiders at the expense of residents (structural violence) Outsiders get to represent the favela (representational violence) o Tourism reinforces structural violence: they can “play” at trafficker life, but can always leave o It’s like Rocinha is not a neighborhood, but a tool for tourists’ education, awareness, and fun (structural) o Like media, the tours only give a partial view (representational) o Only take you to best neighborhood, or bad neighborhood (dirty laundry) (representational) o Outsiders can ultimately decide the image of the favela themselves from these ideas Lecture 19: Solidarity Tourism—TA presentation Solidarity tourism is about witnessing poverty and being in solidarity with the poor Tour operators claim that it benefits people in the favela, but it mostly benefits outsiders o Commodities favela poverty for the benefit of non-residents o Reinforces hyper-real images of the favela o Favela residents have little say in how they are portrayed to tourists o Reinforces inequalities between foreigners, Brazilian elites, and favelados Solidarity tourism is not unique to Brazil, but happens all over the world o Slum tourism in India o Also tends to benefit outsiders more than slum dwellers Voluntourism: Volunteering or interning for a charitable organization away from home, while on vacation or otherwise combined with tourism NGOs (non-governmental organizations): Not for profit organizations that run charitable or environmental programs and rely on donations or grants for funding Problems with voluntourism o First year post-college students with engineering degrees…not qualified in America or Europe, but think they can practice in “third world countries” o Medical students going to Africa to get practice Locals still benefit from volunteers o Friendship, new knowledge, imaginative travel, new relationships, chance to share their knowledge o The TA could type in Hindi, and this was very valuable to the locals Conclusions: o Unrealistic expectations, stereotypes, short stays, language barriers, and cultural misunderstandings can make voluntourism frustrating for both the volunteers and the organizations they work with o Know before you go—learn about development globally and in the place you’re visiting; find out about important aspects of culture, belief, etiquette, and aspirations in your destination o Keep an open mind and always be ready to learn—knowledge is the most valuable thing you will take home with you The Spectacular Favela—Epilogue Chapter 14: Health and Illness Health: The absence of disease and infirmity, as well as the presence of physical, mental, and social well-being (395) Disease: A discrete natural entity that can be clinically identified and treated by a health professional (396) Illness: The individual patient’s experience of sickness (396) How they feel, talk and think about it (396) Culture gives meaning to disease Ethnomedicine: Local systems of health and healing rooted in culturally specific norms and values (400) Ethnopharmacology: The documentation and description of the local use of natural substances in healing remedies and practices (400) Laurent Pordié (2008)—French anthropologist o Documented Tibetan ethnomedicine—(Amchi medicine) Biomedicine: A practice, often associated with Western medicine that seeks to apply the principles of biology and the natural sciences to the practice of diagnosing disease and promoting healing (402) Human microbiome: The complete collection of microorganisms in the human body’s ecosystem (404) Health transition: The significant improvements in human health made over the course of the twentieth century that were not, however, distributed evenly across the world’s population (409) Critical medical anthropology: An approach to the study of health and illness that analyzes the impact of inequality and stratification within systems of power on individual and group health outcomes (410) Medical migration: The movement of diseases, medical treatments, and entire health care systems, as well as those seeking medical care, across national borders (413) Medical pluralism: The intersection of multiple cultural approaches to healing (413) Illness narratives: The personal stories that people tell to explain their illnesses (416) Lecture 20: Health Medical anthropology o Beliefs and practices related to health are part of culture o M.A. provides a holistic approach to: How diseases spread How people make sense of health and illness How structures of power impact health/illness Health o Anthropologists and the WHO define health as more than just the absence of disease o Health = physical, mental, and social well-being o Environment, access to nutrition, housing, education, medical care necessary for optimal health o Violence/war + poverty jeopardize individual and collective health Disease vs. illness o Disease: Biological elements like bacteria, viruses, parasites, or genetic factors that make people sick o Illness: How people experience illness Medical anthropology approaches: Critical medical anthropology o How does inequality impact health? o How do structures of power impact health? Dr. Paul Farmer o MD and PhD, Harvard professor o Co-founder of Partners in Health o PIH educates and provides resources for local doctors and public o Africa: Rwanda, Lesotho, Malawi o Latin America/Caribbean: Mexico, Peru Haiti o Wrote AIDS and Accusation (1992) 1983: CDC listed Haitians mas major AIDS risk group, said immigrants were bringing AIDS to the U.S. Farmers wanted to verify this and how Haitians were responding to accusation and stigmatization Conducted fieldwork/ medical services Ethnocentrism/racism influenced Haiti’s reputation more than scientific data Structural inequality greatly impacts how people experience health/disease/illness To understand public health, you need to take political, economic, and temporal context into account Medical anthropology approaches: Interpretist approach o Health systems are also systems of meaning o How do people think/feel about illness, pain, and mortality? o Cross-cultural and/or historical comparisons o Normative ideas about the body (what it is, what it does) are not universal or stable Interesting book! Flexible Bodies (1984) Dr. Emily Martin, Prof. at NYU Ideas about immune system in the U.S. have shifted and mirror transitions in the global economy Worked with experts, sick/dying people, non-experts in multiple Baltimore neighborhoods Trends in how people experience immunity Immunity and Biomedicine o Biomedicine is rooted in science. “Applying principles from biology and natural sciences to diagnose and promote health”. o Biomedicine is holistic medicine o Flexible Bodies informants mostly in realm of biomedicine Fordism o Assembly line mass production o Hierarchy: Division of labor based on specialization o Stable employment and wage, company loyalty o Health philosophy: Henry Ford had investigators monitor cleanliness at workers’ homes. o Discouraged smoking Emily Martin and Fordism connection o Fordism and “body as castle/at war” tropes/ideals include: Hierarchy/specialization Sense of stability/maintenance Immunity as a system o Less focus on surfaces/exteriors, more on interiors o Immune system as active, adaptable and flexible o Body new antibodies as needed o I.S. interacts w/other systems, circulatory o AIDS (low immunity) & auto-immune diseases (lupus) greater public focus on immune system Immune system and global economy parallels o Both tie to global inequality o Immune system: People with more $/resources/time you can train your body better o Economic system: People with more $/resources can “train” for multiple skills and experiences to get better jobs o Countries with more $/resources can better cope with epidemics that damage poorer countries o Countries with more $/resources endure economic crises better Conclusions from Emily Martin o Economic systems and how people think about the body’s health and illness are interrelated o Correlation, not causation o Parallels show scientific knowledge is integrated with culture and politics o Understanding how people think of body/health/illness requires focus on past/present and micro/macro scales o Immunity as castle vs. system = different models of illness narratives (how people explain their illness) Cinterandes Foundation est. 1990 o Health care relief program for poor/rural people in Ecuador o Integrate public health with social/political development and environmental preservation o Mobile surgery (on truck) Lecture 21: Guest lecturer—Anthropologist who studied health in Malawi Enelesi (Anna-lacey) died of an unknown death The AIDS Epidemic o ~37 million people in the world HIV infected o Over 2/3 are in the sub-Saharan Africa (very south) o 1.1 million AIDS deaths yearly o Both deaths and new infections are dropping Which structures determine who is most vulnerable? o Cash economy—the only thing really valuable in Malawi is agriculture and cheap labor Effects of cash taxation o Male labor migration o Transition to cash economy Structural adjustment o User fees (co-pays) for health and education o Privatizing government services o Currency devaluation o Reducing or eliminating Minimum wages Price controls Food subsidies Labor protections Logic of austerity o Bring efficiencies of the market into government bureaucracies o Directly reduce government spending o Boost production by encouraging business investment The reuse of medical equipment might have been the cause of Enelesi’s death Many “sugar-daddies” for single factory working moms Social responses to epidemics o Denial… o Resentment toward bearers of bad news… o Gradual acceptance of epidemic’s reality o Reaffirmation of majority’s social values (often scapegoating)
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