MKT 310 Chapter 3
MKT 310 Chapter 3 MKT 310
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Sarlls on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MKT 310 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. Dan Sheehan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Consumer Behavior in Marketing at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
MKT 310 Chapter 3: Cultural Influences on Consumer Decision Making Culture A culture is a society’s personality Culture—the values, ethics, rituals, traditions, material objects, and services produced or valued by the members of a society o Value—a belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite (ex: value freedom over slavery) Cultural Systems Ecology—the way members of a culture adapt to their physical habitat Social structure—the way members of a culture maintain an orderly social life Ideology—the mental characteristics of a people & how they relate to their environment in social groups Cultural Values Value—a belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite o Value system—a culture’s ranking of the relative importance of values o Core values—common general values held by culture Enculturation—the process of learning the beliefs and behaviors endorsed by one’s own culture Acculturation—the process of learning the beliefs and behaviors endorsed by another culture Crescive norms—unspoken rules that govern social behavior o Custom—a norm that controls basic behaviors, such as division of labor in a household o More—(more-ay) a custom with a strong moral overtone o Conventions—norms that regulate how we conduct our everyday lives Terminal values—end states desired by members of a culture Instrumental values—goals endorsed because they are needed to achieve desired end states or terminal values List of values (LOV) scale—identifies consumer segments based on the values members endorse and relates each value to differences in consumption patterns Means-end chain model—assumes that people link very specific product attributes (indirectly) to terminal values such as freedom or safety o Laddering—a technique for uncovering consumers’ associations between specific attributes and general values The Ying and Yang of Marketing and Culture We distinguish between high culture and low culture Cooptation—a cultural process by which the original meanings of a product or other symbol associated with a subculture are modified by members of mainstream culture Cultural Movement Cultural selection—the process by which some alternatives are selected over others by cultural gatekeepers Culture production system (CPS)—the set of individuals and organizations responsible for creating and marketing a cultural product Cultural gatekeepers—individuals who are responsible for determining the types of messages and symbolism to which members of mass culture are exposed Art product—a creation viewed primarily as an object of aesthetic contemplation without any functional value Craft product—a creation valued because of the beauty with which it performs some function; this type of product tends to follow a formula that permits rapid production, and it is easier to understand than an art product Cultural formula—a sequence of media events in which certain roles and props tend to occur consistently Reality Engineering Many modern marketers are reality engineers Reality engineering—the process whereby elements of popular culture are appropriated by marketers and become integrated into marketing strategies Product placement—the process of obtaining exposure for a product by arranging for it to be inserted into a move, television show, or some other medium Advergaming—online games merged with interactive advertisements that let companies target specific types of consumers Cultural Stories and Ceremonies Myths—a story with symbolic elements that represent a culture’s ideals o They are stories that express a culture’s values and in modern times marketing messages convey these values to members of the culture Myths serve four interrelated functions in culture o Metaphysical—they help to explain the origins of existence o Cosmological—they emphasize that all components of the universe are part of a single picture o Sociological—they maintain social order because they authorize a social code for members of a culture to follow o Psychological—they provide models for personal conflict Binary opposition—a defining structural characteristic of many myths in which two opposing ends of some dimension are represented (e.g., good versus evil, nature versus technology) Ritual—a set of multiple, symbolic behaviors that occur in a fixed sequence and that tend to be repeated periodically o Many of our consumption activities—including holiday observances, grooming, and gift-giving—are rituals o Fortress brands—brands that consumers closely link to rituals; this makes it unlikely they will be replaced o Ritual artifacts—items (consumer goods) used in the performance of rituals o Grooming rituals—sequences of behaviors that aid in the transition from the private self to the public self or back again o Gift-giving ritual—the events involved in the selection, presentation, acceptance, and interpretation of a gift Gestation Presentation Reformulation Reciprocity norm—a culturally learned obligation to return the gesture of a gift with one of equal value o Holiday rituals o Rites of passage—sacred times marked by a change in social status Sacred and Profane Consumption We describe products as either sacred or profane, and it’s not unusual for some products to move back and forth between two categories Sacred consumption—the process of consuming objects and events that are set apart from normal life and treated with some degree of respect or awe Profane consumption—process of consuming objects and events that are ordinary of the everyday world Sacralization—a process that occurs when ordinary objects, events, or people take on sacred meaning to a culture or to specific groups within a culture o Objectification—when we attribute sacred qualities to mundane items o Contamination—when a place or object takes on sacred qualities because of its association with another sacred person or event o Collecting—the systematic acquisition of a particular object or set of objects o Hoarding—unsystematic acquisition of objects (in contrast to collecting) Desacralization—the process that occurs when a sacred item or symbol is removed from its special place, or is duplicated in mass quantities, and becomes profane as a result Global Consumer Culture Products that succeed in one culture may fail in another if marketers fail to understand the differences among consumers in each place Global consumer culture—a culture in which people around the world are united through their common devotion to brand name consumer goods, movie stars, celebrities, and leisure activities Western (and particularly American) culture has a huge impact around the world, although people in other countries don’t necessarily ascribe the same meanings to products as we do o Creolization—foreign influences are absorbed and integrated with local meanings Adopt a standardized strategy o Etic perspective—an approach to studying (or marketing to) cultures that stresses commonalities across cultures Adopt a localized strategy o Emic perspective—an approach to studying for (or marketing to) cultures that stresses the unique aspects of each culture Consumer style—a pattern of behaviors, attitudes, and opinions that influences all of a person’s consumption activities—including attitudes toward advertising, preferred channels of information and purchases, brand loyalty, and price consciousness Hofstede Dimensions of National Culture: o Power distance—the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally o Individualism—the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups o Masculinity—the distribution of roles between the genders o Uncertainty avoidance—a society’s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity o Long-term orientation—values associated with Long-Term Orientation are thrift and perseverance; values associated with Short-Term Orientation are respect, tradition, fulfilling social obligations, and protecting one’s “face” o Indulgence versus restraint—the extent to which a society allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun A culture high on restraint suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms Does Global Marketing work? Consumers in different countries have varying conventions and customs so marketers must locate consumers who share a similar worldview Two consumer segments: o Affluent ppl who are “global citizens” and who come into contact with ideas from around the world through travel, business, and media o Young people whose tastes in music and fashion are strongly influenced by MTV and other media that broadcast many of the same images in multiple countries Four major segments of consumers who evaluate global brands in the same way: o Global citizens—the largest segment (55%) uses the global success of a company as a signal of quality and innovation…concerned with CSR nd o Global dreamers—2 largest (23%), see global brands as quality products and readily buy into the myths they offer o Antiglobals—(13%); are skeptical that transnational companies deliver higher- quality goods. Dislike brands that preach American values, and don’t trust global companies to behave responsibly o Global agnostics—(9%); don’t base purchase decisions on a brand’s global attributes. Instead, they evaluate a global product by the same criteria they use to judge local brands and don’t regard its global nature as meriting special consideration
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