MKT 310 Chapter 5
MKT 310 Chapter 5 MKT 310
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Sarlls on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MKT 310 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. Dan Sheehan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Consumer Behavior in Marketing at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
Chapter 5: Perception Sensation (Objective 1): We each put our own personal “spin” on things as we assign meanings consistent with our own experiences, biases, and desires Sensation—the immediate response of our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, fingers, skin) to basic stimuli such as light, color, sound, odor, and textures Perception—the process by which people select, organize, and interpret these sensations o Focuses on what we add to these raw sensations in order to give them meaning Brains receive external stimuli, or sensory inputs, on a number of channels o These inputs are the raw data that begin the perceptual process Marketers’ messages are more effective when they appeal to several senses Hedonic consumption—multisensory, fantasy, and emotional aspects of consumers’ interactions with products Context effects—subtle cues in the environment that influence a person’s decisions o Evaluate more harshly on tile floor vs. carpet o Romance movies rated higher in cold room o When product is scented, consumers are more likely to remember other attributes about it after they encounter it Sensory Marketing (Objective 1) The design of a product is now a key driver of its success or failure Sensory marketing—marketing strategies that focus on the impact of sensations on our product experiences (e.g. Omni luxury hotels) VisionMarketers communicate meanings on the visual channel through a product’s color, size, and styling o Colors elicit certain emotions and responses; some associations come from learned associations o Perceptions of color depend on both its physical wavelength & how the mind responds to stimulus o Yellow is in the middle so it is the brightest and attracts attention o The choice of a color palette is a key issue in package design o Trade dress—color combinations that become strongly associated with a corporation Dollars and Scentsodors stir emotions, create a calm feeling, invoke memories, relieve stress, etc. o Younger people are at the forefront of scented air o We process fragrance cues in the limbic system, the most primitive part of the brain and the place where we experience immediate emotions o Sensory signature—a distinctive sound or aroma that an organization links to its brand identity (Objective 2) Products and commercial messages often appeal to our senses, but because of the profusion of those messages most of them won’t influence us Sound o Audio watermarking—a technique where composers and producers weave a distinctive sound/motif into a piece of music that sticks in people’s minds over time Ex: Coca-Cola chose “Wavin Flag” to be centerpiece of campaign o Sound symbolism—the process by which the way a word sounds influences our assumptions about what it describes and attributes, such as size Consumers are more likely to recognize brand names that begin with a hard consonance like a K (Kellogg’s) or P (Pepsi) We tend to associate certain vowel and consonance sounds (or phonemes) with perceptions of large and small size Touchresearchers found that participants who simply touched an item for 30 seconds or less created a greater level of attachment to the product, which in turn boosted what they were willing to pay for it o Sensations that reach the skin stimulate or relax us o Touch is a primal language o Haptic—touch-related sensations; appear to moderate the relationship between product experience and judgment confidence…we’re more sure about what we perceive when we touch it Individuals who score high on a “Need for Touch” (NFT) scale respond strongly to the haptic dimension o Kansei engineering—a Japanese philosophy that translates customers’ feelings into design elements Ex: young drivers saw the car as an extension of their body Taste “flavor houses” develop new concoctions to please the changing palates of consumers o Cultural factors also determine the tastes we find desirable The Stages of Perception (Objective 3) Perception is a three-stage process that translates raw stimuli into meaning We do not passively process information present and only notice a small amount 3 stages of perception: Stage 1: Exposure—occurs when a stimulus comes within the range of someone’s sensory receptors o Sensory threshold—the point at which it is strong enough to make a conscious impact in his or her awareness o Psychophysics—focuses on how people integrate the physical environment into their personal, subjective worlds o Absolute threshold—refers to the minimum amount of stimulation a person can detect on a given sensory channel o Differential threshold—refers to the ability of a sensory system to detect changes in or differences between two stimuli j.n.d. (just noticeable difference)—the minimum difference we can detect between two stimuli o A consumer’s ability to detect a difference between 2 stimuli is relative, meaning that the same noise level conversation is different in a crowded street vs. a quiet library o Weber’s Law—the principle that the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater its change must be for it to be noticed o (Objective 4) subliminal advertising—refers to a stimulus below the level of the consumer’s awareness Subliminal advertising is a controversial—but largely ineffective—way to talk to consumers. However, there is no proof that this exists (Ex: KFC) Embeds—tiny figures they insert into magazine advertising via high-speed photography or airbrushing Must be tailored to a specific individual and close to the liminal threshold Step 2: Attention—the extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus o Consumers often live in a state of sensory overload—a condition where consumers are exposed to far more information than they can process (average is 3,500 pieces a day) o Eyeball economy—the argument that in today’s media environment, marketers compete for consumers’ attention rather than their money o Multitasking—processing information from more than one medium at a time These bursts of stimulation provoke the body to secrete dopamine, which is addicting Heavy multitaskers have more trouble focusing and experience more stress o Advertisers keep innovating to get visitors to watch their messages Rich media—the use of animated .gif files or video clips to grab viewer’s attention Teaser ads are seen on TV that give you a taste of the story but make you return later for the rest o Because the brain’s capacity to process information is limited, consumers are very selective about what they pay attention to Perceptual selection—means that people attend to only a small portion of the stimuli to which they are exposed Consumers practice a form of “psychic economy” as they pick and choose among stimuli to avoid being overwhelmed based on personal and stimulus factors o Perceptual vigilance—means we are more likely to be aware of stimuli that relate to our current needs o Perpetual defense—means that we tend to see what we want to see—and we don’t see what we don’t want to see (Ex: heavy smoker blocks out images of black lungs) o Adaptation—the degree to which consumers continue to notice a stimulus over time Occurs when we no longer pay attention to a stimulus because it is so familiar A consumer can “habituate” and require increasingly stronger “doses” of a stimulus to notice it We experience events more intensely at first but then get used to them. When we experience an interruption and then start over, we revert to original intensity level o Several factors can lead to adaptation: Intensity—less-intense stimuli (e.g. soft sounds or dim colors) Discrimination—simple stimuli habituate (become accustomed to) because they do not require attention to detail Exposure—frequently encountered stimuli habituate as the rate of exposure increases Relevance—stimuli that are irrelevant or unimportant habituate because they fail to attract attention o Visually complex ads are more likely to capture attention…we are more likely to notice stimuli that differ from others around them o How a message creates contrast—stimuli that differ from others around them Size—the size of the stimulus itself in contrast to the competition helps to determine if it will command attention Ex: readership of a magazine ad increases in proportion to size of the ad Color—draws attention to a product or gives it a distinct identity Black & Decker tools called DeWalt made their tools yellow Position—we stand a better chance of noticing stimuli that are in places we’re more likely to look, such as at eye level Golden triangle—the portion of a website that a person’s eyes naturally gravitate to first, which makes it more likely that search results located in that area will be seen Novelty—stimuli that appear in unexpected was or places tend to grab our attention. One solution is to put ads in unconventional places, where there will be less competition for attention (e.g. back of shopping carts, walls of tunnels) o One study indicated that novelty in the form of interruptions actually intensifies our experiences; distraction increases our enjoyment of pleasant stimuli as it amplifies our dislike of unpleasant stimuli People enjoy TV shows more when commercials interrupt them Stage 3: Interpretation—refers to the meanings we assign to sensory stimuli (Objective 5) o We interpret the stimuli to which we do pay attention according to learned patterns and expectations (e.g. McDonald’s fries taste better from a McDonald’s bag) o Schema—set of beliefs; the meaning we assign to a stimulus depends on this Priming certain properties of a stimulus evokes a schema Schemas determine what criteria customers will use to evaluate the product, package, or message Package schematics—we perceive objects on the right to be heavier We anthropomorphize objects when we think of them in human terms, which leads us to evaluate products using schemas we apply to other ppl (brand personalities) Ex: Smiling vs. frowning car o We determine the meaning of stimulus based on past experiences, expectations, and needs o Our brains tend to relate incoming sensations to others already in memory, based on some fundamental organizational principles o Gestalt psychology—a school of thought based upon the notion that people interpret meaning the totality of a set of stimuli rather than from any individual stimulus. Gestalt—whole, pattern, or configuration; the whole is greater than the sum of its parts o Gestalt Perspective Principles: Closure Principle—states that people tend to perceive an incomplete picture as complete; we fill in the blanks based on prior experience Encourages audience participation, which increases the chance that people will attend to the message Ex: reading words when some letters are missing or jumbled up Principle of Similarity—tells us that consumers tend to group together objects that share similar physical characteristics Ex: Green Giant packaging made “Sea of Green” to unify offerings Ex: rolled paper circles combined to make Indian man Figure-Ground Principle—states that one part of a stimulus will dominate (the figure), and other parts recede into the background (the ground). Ex: picture with a sharp focus on object and background blurred; focal point o Semiotics: the meaning of meaning (Objective 6) The field of semiotics helps us to understand how marketers use symbols to create meaning Semiotics—a discipline that studies the correspondence between signs and symbols and their roles in how we assign meanings It is a key link to consumer behavior bc consumers use products to express social identities “Advertising serves as a culture/consumption dictionary’ its entries are products, and their definitions are cultural meanings Every marketing message has 3 components: an object, a sign (or symbol), and an interpretant Object—the product that is the focus of the message (e.g. Marlboro cigarettes) Sign—the sensory image that represents the intended meanings of the object (e.g. the Marlboro cowboy) Interpretant—the meaning we derive from the sign (e.g. rugged, individualistic, American) Signs relate to objects in one of 3 ways: resemble, connect to, or tie to them conventionally Icon—a sign that resembles the product in some way (e.g. Ford mustang has a galloping horse on the hood) Index—a sign that connects to a product because they share some property (e.g. Procter & Gamble’s Spic and Span cleanser product conveys the shared property of fresh scent) Symbol—a sign that relates to a product by either conventional or agreed-on associations (e.g. the lion in Dreyfus Fund ads provide conventional with fearlessness and strength that it carries over to the company’s approach to investments) o Hyperreality—refers to the process of making real what is initially simulation or “hype” Advertisers create new relationships btwn objects and interpretants Reverse product placement—fictional products that appear in shows become popular in the real world (Ex: Harry Potter—Bertie Bott’s Every Flavor Beans) Augmented reality—refers to media that superimpose one or more digital layers of data, images, or video over a physical object (Ex: watching 3D movie with 3D glasses) o Positioning strategy—an organization’s use of elements in the marketing mix to influence the consumer’s interpretation of a product’s meaning relative to its competitors Our perception of a brand comprises both its functional and symbolic attributes (our meaning of it more than its actual function) o Dimensions to carve out a brand’s position in the marketplace include: Lifestyle, price leadership, attributes, product class, competitors, occasions, users, and quality
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