MKT 310 Chapter 6
MKT 310 Chapter 6 MKT 310
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Sarlls on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MKT 310 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. Dan Sheehan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Consumer Behavior in Marketing at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
Chapter 6: Learning and Memory Learning (Objective 1) It is important to understand how consumers learn about products and services Learning—a relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience o Incidental learning—unintentional acquisition of knowledge Learning is an ongoing process because our knowledge about the world constantly updates as we are exposed to new stimuli and as we receive ongoing feedback that allows us to modify our behavior when we find ourselves in similar situations at a later time Learning Theories (Objective 2) Conditioning results in learning 1) Behavioral learning theories—assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events The mind as a “black box” and emphasize the observable aspects of behavior, which consist of things that go into the box (the stimuli or events perfected from the outside world) and things that come out of the box (the responses, or reactions to these stimuli) The feedback we receive as we go through life shapes our experiences; we get rewards and punishments Two major approaches to learning represent this view: classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning (1) Classical conditioning—occurs when a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own. Over time, the second stimulus causes a similar response because we associate it with the first stimulus o Ex: Pavlov paired a neutral stimulus (bell) with a one known to cause salivation in dogs (dried meat powder) o Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)—a stimulus that is naturally capable of causing a response (e.g. meat powder) o Conditioned stimulus (CS)—a stimulus that produces a learned reaction through association over time (e.g. bell) o Conditioned response (CR)—a response to a conditioned stimulus caused by the learning of an association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) (e.g. dogs drool now when they hear a bell) o Primarily applies to responses controlled by the autonomic (salivation) and nervous (eye blink) systems; focuses on visual and olfactory cues that induce hunger, thirst, sexual arousal, and other basic drives Ex: Credit cards trigger big spending o Conditioning effects are more likely to occur after the CS and UCS have been paired a number of times; involves a close pairing of two stimuli Repetition—repeated exposures that increase the strength of stimulus- response associations and prevent the decay of these associations in memory Most effective is combo of spaced exposures that alternate in terms of media that are more and less involving Extinction—lack of association; occurs when the effects of prior conditioning diminish and finally disappear o Stimulus generalization refers to the tendency of stimuli similar to a CS to evoke similar, conditioned responses (e.g. dogs salivate at noise resembling a bell) Halo effect—a phenomenon that occurs when people react to other, similar stimuli in much the same way they respond to the original stimulus o Stimulus discrimination—occurs when a UCS does not follow a stimulus similar to a CS Reactions weaken and will soon disappear Choosing stimuli responses wisely Brand-name imprinting—a brand must own a niche in memory; a space that anchors it to a specific category or usage occasion (aka “brand node”) [[Marketing Applications of Classical Conditioning Principles (Objective 3)]] Learned associations with brands generalize to other products, which is important to marketers When researchers pair nonsense syllables (meaningless sets of letters) with such evaluative words as beauty or success, the meaning transfers to the fake words o This shows that fairly simple associations can condition complex meanings Brand equity—a brand that has strong positive associations in a consumer’s memory and commands a lot of loyalty as a result RepetitionMore than 3 exposures is too much (first—awareness, second—relevance, third —reminds benefits) o Advertising wear-out—the condition that occurs when consumers become so used to hearing or seeing a marketing stimulus that they no longer pay attention to it o Research found that repetition helps but primarily effective when competitors also showed ads on the site or content related to advertised product Conditioned Product Associationsadvertisements often pair a product with a positive stimulus to create a desirable association Stimulus Generalizationcentral to branding and packaging decisions that try to capitalized on consumers’ positive associations with an existing brand or company name (ex: fans buy University apparel, etc.) o Family branding—many products capitalize on the reputation of a company name (e.g. Campbell’s, Heinz, and General Electric) o Product line extension—marketers add related products to an established brand (e.g. Dole, which we associate with fruit, introduced refrigerated juices and juice bars) o Licensing—companies often “rent” well-known names, hoping that the learned associations they have forged will “rub off” onto other kinds of products (e.g. Jamba Juice launched clothing line) o Look-alike packaging—distinctive packaging designs create strong associations with a particular brand (e.g. companies that make generic or private-label brands and want to communicate a quality image often exploit this linkage) Consumer confusion—in legal contexts, the likelihood that one company’s logo, product design, or package is so similar to another that the typical shopper would mistake one for the other Behavioral Learning Theories Cont’d… (2) Instrumental Conditioning—aka operant conditioning; occurs when we learn to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and avoid those that yield negative outcomes o B.F. Skinner demonstrated the effects of this by teaching pigeons and other animals to dance, play Ping-Pong, and perform other activities when he systematically rewarded them for desired behaviors o Responses are deliberate to obtain a goal, and these may be more complex o Shaping—the learning of a desired behavior over time by rewarding intermediate actions until the final result is obtained (ex: owner of new store gives prizes to everyone that walks in, hoping that over time they will continue to come in and eventually buy something) o Occurs when a learner receives a reward after she performs the desired behavior Learning takes place over time, while the learner attempts and abandons other behaviors that don’t get reinforced o *The person makes a response because it is instrumental to gain a reward or avoid a punishment o Occurs in 3 ways: 1) Positive reinforcement—the process whereby rewards provided by the environment strengthen responses to stimuli and appropriate behavior is learned 2) Negative reinforcement—the process whereby the environment weakens responses to stimuli so that inappropriate behavior is avoided 3) Punishment—the learning that occurs when a response is followed by unpleasant events In positive and punishment, person receives a reaction when he or she does something but negative occurs when the person avoids a negative outcome— the removal of something is pleasurable and hence is rewarding When a person no longer receives a positive outcome, extinction is likely to occur Figure 6.1 pg. 215 o Reinforcement Schedule: Fixed-interval reinforcement—after a specified time period has passed, the first response you make brings the reward Ppl tend to respond slowly right after the get reinforced but their responses get faster with each reinforcement Ex: consumers may crowd into a store for the last day of its seasonal sale and not reappear until the next one Variable-interval reinforcement—the time that must pass before you get reinforced varies based on some average Don’t know when the expect next reinforcement so respond at consistent rate Secret shoppers Fixed-ratio reinforcement—reinforcement occurs only after a fixed number of responses Motivates you to continue performing the same behavior (e.g. buying groceries at the same store to earn a prize when you collect 50 receipts) Variable-ratio reinforcement—you get reinforced after a certain number of responses, but you don’t know how many responses are required People tend to respond at very high and steady rates, and this type of behavior is very difficult to extinguish Ex: consumer behavior with slot machines [[Marketing Applications of Instrumental Conditioning Principles]] Frequency marketing—a popular technique that rewards regular purchasers with prizes that get better as they spend more (e.g. Frequent Flyer programs) Gamification—the process of injecting gaming elements into tasks that might otherwise be boring or routine. Elements include: o A dynamic digital environment that resembles a sophisticated videogame platform o Multiple short- and long-term goals o Rapid and frequent feedback o A reward for most or all efforts in the form of a badge or a virtual product o Friendly competition in a low risk environment o A manageable degree of uncertainty Many domains of human activity (and business) share the common need to motivate and reward people to achieve ascending levels of master, including: o Store and brand loyalty Ex: Foursquare gives virtual badges when they check in to a local café or restaurant o Social marketing Ex: Company called Opower that awards badges to customers when they reduce their energy consumption and compare to neighbors o Employee performance Ex: use Objective Logistics to rank the performances of waiters on a leader board 2) Cognitive Learning Theory—approaches that stress the importance of internal mental processes; this perspective views people as problem-solvers who actively use information from the world around them to master their environment Stress the role of creativity and insight during the learning process Conditioning occurs because subjects develop conscious hypotheses and then act on them Nonconscious procedural knowledge—people process at least some information in an automatic, passive way, a condition called “mindlessness” (i.e. with a new product, we respond to stimulus in terms of existing categories we have learned, rather than taking the trouble to formulate new ones) o Reaction is activated by a trigger feature o Ex: Woman wears perfume to get social rewards of compliments Observational learning—occurs when we watch the actions of others and note the reinforcements they receive for their behaviors (Objective 5) o Learning occurs as a result of vicarious rather than direct experience o Store observations/information in memory and then use it later on o Modeling—the process of imitating the behavior of others (Ex: shopping for perfume & u remember ur friend was complimented on her perfume before so u buy that one). Requirements: The consumer’s attention must be directed to the appropriate model, whom, for reasons of attractiveness, competence, status, or similarity, he must want to emulate The consumer must remember what the model says or does The consumer must convert this information into actions The consumer must be motivated to perform these actions o The degree to which a person emulates someone else depends on that model’s level of social attractiveness (physical appearance, expertise, or similarity to evaluator) Consumer socialization—the process by which young people acquire skills, knowledge, and attributes relevant to their functioning in the marketplace (family and media are primary sources) o Parents instill their own values in children and determine the degree to which their children come into contact with other information sources Authoritarian parents are hostile, restrictive, and emotionally uninvolved. No warm relationships with children, censor media, and have negative views of advertising Neglecting parents are also detached from children, and don’t exercise much control over what their children do Indulgent parents communicate more w/ children about consumption related matters & are less restrictive. Believe children should learn about marketplace w/o much interference o Five stages of consumer development: 1) Observing 2) Making requests 3) Making selections 4) Making assisted purchases 5) Making independent purchases o Many marketers push products on kids to build lifelong habit Stage of Cognitive development—the ability to comprehend concepts of increasing complexity as a person matures. Young children learn consumption-related information surprisingly well o Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget was the foremost proponent of the idea that children pass through distinctive stages of cognitive development. Believed that a certain cognitive structure characterizes each stage as the child learns to process information Short and wide glass vs. tall and skinny glass o 3 developmental stages: Limited—children who are younger than age 6 do not employ storage & retrieval strategies Cued—children between the ages of 6 and 12 employ these strategies but only when prompted to do so Strategic—children 12 and older spontaneously employ storage and retrieval strategies o Kids learn to relate to brand names at an early age Conceptual brand meanings, which specify the non-observable abstract features of the product, enter into the picture in middle childhood; children incorporate them into their thinking and judgments a few years later Multiple intelligence theory—a perspective that argues for other types of intelligence, such as athletic prowess or musical ability, beyond the traditional math and verbal skills psychologists use to measure IQ (including athletic prowess or musical ability) Memory Memory—the process of acquiring information and storing it over time so that it will be available when we need it o Information processing approach assumes that the mind is in some ways like a computer: Data are input, processes, and output for later use in revised form o Encoding—information enters in a way the system will recognize o Storage—we integrate this knowledge with what is already in memory o Retrieval—we access the desired information Types of memory: o Sensory memory—temporary storage of sensory information; high capacity; less than 1 second (vision) or a few seconds (hearing) o Attention—info that passes through an attentional gate is transferred to short-term memory o Short-term memory—brief storage of information currently being used; limited capacity; less than 20 seconds o Elaborative rehearsal—information subjected to elaborative rehearsal or deep processing (e.g. its meaning is considered) is transferred to long-term memory o Long-term memory—relatively permanent storage of info; unlimited capacity; long/permanent Grocery list is a good example of a powerful external memory aid The way we encode, or mentally program, information helps to determine how our brains will store this information o It’s more likely that we’ll retain incoming data when we associate it with other things in memory o Sometimes we process a stimulus simply in terms of its sensory meaning, such as color or shape o Semantic meaning—refers to symbolic associations, such as the idea that rich people drink champagne o Episodic memories—memories that relate to events that are personally relevant; this tends to increase a person’s motivation to retain these memories Especially vivid associations are called flashbulb memories o Narrative—a description of a product that is written as a story Memory Systems Three distinct memory systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory Sensory memory—stores the information we receive from our senses; very temporary Short-term memory (STM)—AKA working memory; stores information for a limited period of time, and it has limited capacity; holds information we are currently processing o Can store verbal input acoustically (in terms of how it sounds) or semantically (in terms of what it means) o Chunking—a process in which information is store by combining small pieces of information into larger ones Chunk—a configuration that is familiar to the person and that he or she can think about as a unit (ex: Seven For All Mankind) The magical number is “7+/-2” Long-term memory (LTM)—the system that allows us to retain information for a long period of time o Elaborative rehearsal—a cognitive process that allows information to move from short-term memory into long-term memory by thinking about the meaning of a stimulus and relating it to other information already in memory How Our Memories Store Information STM and LTM are interdependent Activation models of memory—approaches to memory stressing different levels of processing that occur and activate some aspects of memory rather than others, depending on the nature of the processing task o The more effort it takes to process information (so-called deep processing), the more likely it is that information will transfer to LTM The other products we associate with an individual product influence how we will remember it Associative network—a memory system that organizes individual units of information according to some set of relationships; may include such concepts as brands, manufacturers, and stores
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