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MKT 310 Chapter 8

by: Marissa Sarlls

MKT 310 Chapter 8 MKT 310

Marissa Sarlls
GPA 3.75

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MKT 310 Consumer Behavior book notes chp 8
Consumer Behavior
Dr. Dan Sheehan
Class Notes
Marketing, Consumer, behavior
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Sarlls on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MKT 310 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. Dan Sheehan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Consumer Behavior in Marketing at University of Kentucky.


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Date Created: 05/08/16
MKT 310 Chapter 8: Attitudes and Persuasion The Power of Attitudes  Attitude—a lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues  Attitude object (A )0anything toward which one has an attitude  Functional theory of attitudes—explains how attitudes facilitate social behavior; says that attitudes exist because they serve some function for the person o Utilitarian function—states that we develop some attitudes toward products simply because they provide pleasure or pain o Value-expressive function—states that each individual develops attitudes toward products because of what they say about him or her as a person o Ego-defensive function—attitudes we form to protect ourselves either from external threats or internal feelings (e.g. housewives resist use of instant coffee; products help men feel “macho”) o Knowledge function—the process of forming an attitude to provide order, structure, or meaning; applies when a person is in an ambiguous situation ABC Model of Attributes  ABC Model of Attribute3s—a multidimensional perspective stating that attitudes are jointly defined by affect, behavior, and cognition  Affect—describes how a consumer feels about an attitude object  Behavior—refers to his intentions to take action about it  Cognition—what he believes to be true about the attitude object Hierarchies of Effects  Hierarchy of effects—a fixed sequence of steps that occurs during attitude formation; this sequence varies depending on such factors as the consumer’s level of involvement with the attitude object o Standard learning hierarchy—the traditional process of attitude formation that starts with the formation of beliefs about an attitude object  CognitionAffectBehaviorAttitude (based on cognitive information processing)  Assumes that a person approaches a product decision as a problem-solving process  Consumer is highly involved o Low-involvement hierarchy of effects—the process of attitude formation for products or services that carry little risk or self-identity  BehaviorAffectCognition (based on behavioral learning process)  Assumes consumer initially doesn’t have strong brand preference  Habitual decision-making o Experiential hierarchy of effects—an attitude is initially formed on the basis of a raw emotional reaction; intangible product attributes (advertising, package design, etc.) help shape our attitudes toward a brand  AffectBehaviorCognitionAttitude (based on hedonic consumption)  Emotional contagion How Do We Form Attitudes?  We form attitudes depending on the particular hierarchy of effects that operates  Consumers vary in their commitment to an attitude; the degree of commitment relates to their level of involvement with the attitude object  Three increasing levels of commitment: o Compliance—belief that we form an attitude because it helps us to gain rewards or avoid punishment  Lowest level of involvement; very superficial  Ex: drink Pepsi because cafeteria sells it and going anywhere else for Coke is trouble o Identification—the process of forming an attitude to conform to another person’s or group’s expectations  Consumers tend to imitate the behavior of desirable models o Internalization—deep-seated attitudes become part of our value system  High level of involvement; difficult to change  Principle of cognitive consistency—the belief that consumers value harmony among their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and that they are motivated to maintain uniformity among these elements o A big factor is how well they fit with other, related attitudes we already hold o Theory of cognitive dissonance—states that when a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviors, he/she will take some action to resolve this “dissonance” by changing attitudes or modifying behavior  Cognitive element—something a person believes about himself, a behavior he performs, or an observation about his surroundings  Ex: “I know smoking cigarettes causes cancer” and “I smoke cigarettes”  Reduce dissonance when we eliminate, add, or change  Post purchase dissonance—reduce dissonance by increasing attractiveness of chosen alternative relative to the non-chosen ones to justify decision  Motivational conflicts  A goal has valence, which means that it can be positive or negative. We are motivated to approach goals that help up reach our values o Approach-approach conflict—a person must choose between two desirable alternatives  E.g. going home for the holidays or on a ski trip with friends  Rationalization—support choice or find flaws in what we did not choose o Approach-avoidance conflict—a person desires a goal but wishes to avoid it at the same time  Feels guilty for craving a Twinkie o Avoidance-avoidance conflict—a choice situation where both alternatives are undesirable  Spending more money on an old car or buying a new one  Self-perception theory—an alternative (to cognitive dissonance) explanation of dissonance effects; it assumes that people use observations of their own behavior to infer their attitudes toward some object o Foot-in-the-door technique—approach based on the observation that a consumer is more likely to comply with a request if he or she has first agreed to comply with a smaller request  Social judgment theory—the perspective that people assimilate new information about attitude objects in light of what they already know or feel; the initial attitude acts as a frame of reference, and new information is categorized in terms of this standard o Latitudes of acceptance and rejection—the notion that people differ in terms of the information they will find acceptable or unacceptable; they form latitudes of acceptance and rejection around an attitude standard—ideas that fall within a latitude will be favorable received, but those falling outside of this zone will not  Assimilation effect—people perceive messages within latitude of acceptance as more consistent with their position than messages actually are  Contrast effect—we tend to see messages that fall in our latitude of rejection as even more unacceptable than they actually are  As consumer gets more involved with attitude object, his/her latitude of acceptance dec.  Balance theory—a theory that considers relations among elements a person might perceive as belonging together, and people’s tendency to change relations among elements in order to make them consistent or “balanced” Attitude Models  Attitude models—identify specific components and combine them to predict a consumer’s overall attitude toward a product or brand  Multiattribute attitude model—those models that assume a consumer’s attitude (evaluation) of an attitude object depends on the beliefs he or she has about several or many attributes of the object o The use of a Multiattribute model implies that an attitude toward a product or brand can be predicted by identifying these specific beliefs and combining them to derive a measure of the consumer’s overall attitude o Attributes are characteristics of the 0 o Beliefs are cognitions of the specific 0 o Importance weights reflect the relative priority of an attribute to the consumer o Fishbein model—a widely used perspective that measures several attributes to determine a person’s overall attitude  Salient beliefs are about the object a person considers during evaluation  Object-attribute linkages, or the probability that a particular object has an important attribute  Evaluation of each of the important attributes Do Attitudes Predict Behavior?  Theory of reasoned action—an updated version of the Fishbein Multiattribute attitude theory that considers factors such as social pressure and Aact(the attitude toward buying a product), rather than simply attitudes toward the product itself o Normative influence can result in a contradiction between what we say we will do and what we actually do when the moment of truth arrives o Subjective norm (SN) what we believe other people think we should do  Intensity of normative belief and motivation to comply with belief  Multiple pathway anchoring and adjustment model (MPAA)—emphasizes multiple pathways to attitude formation, including outside-in (object-centered) and inside-out (person0centered) pathways o Theory of trying—states that we should replace the criterion of behavior in the reasoned action model with trying to reach a goal Persuasion  Persuasion—an active attempt to change attitudes o Reciprocity—we are more likely to give if first we receive.  Including money in a mail survey o Scarcity—items are more attractive when they aren’t available o Authority—we believe an authoritative source much more readily than one that is less authoritative o Consistency—people try not to contradict themselves in terms of what they say and do about an issue o Liking—we agree with those we like or admire o Consensus—we consider what others do before we decide what to do Communication  Communications model—a framework specifying that a number of elements are necessary for communication to be achieved, including a source, message, medium, receivers, and feedback  Permission marketing—acknowledges that a marketer will be much more successful when he communicates with consumers who have already agreed to listen him o We can narrowcast, or finely tune out messages to suit very small groups of receivers  We are partners in the communication process  M-commerce (mobile commerce) and social media o Blogs, video blogging (vlogging), podcasting, virtual worlds, twitter, widgets, transmedia formats The Source  When we attribute the same message to different sources and measure the degree of attitude change that occurs after listeners hear it, we can isolate which characteristics cause attitude change  Source credibility—a communicator’s expertise, objectivity, or trustworthiness. o Sincerity is particularly important when a company tries to publicize its corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities that benefit the company o Celebrity spokesperson or expert o Sleeper effect—the process whereby differences in attitude change between positive and negative sources seem to diminish over time The Message  The way a marketer structures his or her message determines how persuasive it will be  Verbal elements are more effective when an accompanying picture reinforces them, especially if they frame the illustration o More appropriate for high-involvement situations  Visual images allow the receiver to chunk information at the time of coding, which results in a stronger memory trace that aids retrieval over time  Mere exposure phenomenon—the tendency to like persons or things if we see them more often o Too much repetition leads to habituation, whereby consumer no longer pays attention to stimulus  Two-factor theory—the perspective that two separate psychological processes are operating when a person is repeatedly exposed to an ad o Repetition increases familiarity and thus reduces uncertainty about the product, but over time boredom increases with each exposure, and at some point the amount of boredom incurred begins to exceed the amount of uncertainty reduced, resulting in wear-out o Overcome by limiting amount of exposure per repetition  A source presents an argument and tried to convince the receiver to shift his or her opinion o Supportive arguments present one or more positive attributes about product or reasons to buy it o Two-sided messages present both positive and negative information  Refutational arguments—calling attention to a product’s negative attributes as a persuasive strategy where a negative issue is raised and then dismissed; can increase source credibility because it reduces reporting bias  Comparative advertising—a strategy in which a message compares two or more specifically named or recognizably presented brands and makes a comparison of them in terms of one or more specific attributes o May also be lower in believability and stir up source derogation (i.e. the consumer may doubt the credibility of a biased presentation) Types of Message Appeals  Emotional vs. Rational appeals  Sex appeals…work more with men  Humor appeals o Provide a source of distraction o Inhibits counterarguing—consumer thinks of reasons why he doesn’t agree with the message  Fear appeals—emphasize the negative consequences that can occur unless the consumer changes a behavior or an attitude o More common in contexts to get people to be healthier, quit smoking, etc. o Most effective when they use moderate threat  Message as an art form o Allegory—a story about an abstract trait or concept that advertisers tell in the context of a person, animal, vegetable, or object o Resonance—combines a play on words with a relevant picture (“berried treasure”) Source vs. Message  Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)—the approach that one of two routes to persuasion (central vs. peripheral) will be followed, depending on the personal relevance of the message; the route taken determines the relative importance of the message contents versus other characteristics, such as source attractiveness o High involvement  central route; generate cognitive responses; belief & attitude change; behavior change  Strong, rational arguments o Low involvement  peripheral route; belief change; behavior change; attitude change  Paradox of low involvement: when we don’t care as much about a product, the way it’s presented (e.g. who endorses it or the visuals that go with it) increases in importance  Colors and images in packaging or famous people’s endorsements


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