Personal Nutrition Notes
Personal Nutrition Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tatyana Mims on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Hasin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Personal Nutrition in Health Sciences at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
Breast-Feeding (Best bet for babies and moms!) Human milk for human babies o Primary benefit Nutritional o Complete source of nutrition for first 4-6 months of life Benefits for infants o Immune factors o Psychological & emotional benefits o Always ready to eat o Perfect temperature o Sterile o Easy to digest o Less allergy Benefits for mother o Helps uterus contract o Convenience o Less expensive o No waste o Help mother lose body fat o May reduce risk Ovarian cancer Breast cancer Osteoporosis Dietary Cautions for breastfeeding women o Almost anything consumed ends up in breast milk Coffee (caffeine) Alcohol o Environmental contaminants Many are fat soluble -> stored in fat tissues o Drugs & medications Infants grow fast! o Growth rate higher in infancy than any other time in life Double wt. in 4 months Triple wt. in 12 months Infant feeding recommendations o Breastfeeding 4-6 months (exclusively) o Specially prepared solid foods > 4 months o Introduce solids one at a time for a few days Iron fortified cereal as first solid food Toddlers (1-5 Years) How much, how often? o Transition from liquid/ semi-solid to solid diet o Establish healthy dietary pattern Encourage normal growth Discourage unhealthful eating behaviors o Parents as good examples o Maintain regular meal patterns o Be flexible with meals o Drink water rather than juice or soft drinks Excessive juice intake Excessive weight Diarrhea (certain juices) o Apple, pear o Nutritious snacks Fruits Vegetables Low fat yogurt or cheese sticks Low fat whole grain crackers o ‘tablespoons’ to ‘quarts’ Serving sizes ¼ to 1/3 of adult portions Offer less than what they might eat Let them ask for more Respect hunger cues Avoid membership in “clean plate” club Encourages overeating o Possible weight problems Of food aversions o Possible nutritional problems Parents should decide what foods to offer children. Children should decide how much to eat. Childhood (5-12 Years) Mealtime Tactics o Children learn by watching o Be there during mealtime o Kids should sit while they eat o Use kid-size dishes & utensils o Reward with attention & affection-not food o Avoid idea of “forbidden foods” o Plenty of time… o Plain foods they can recognize o Get kids involved o New foods at beginning of meals o Serve same food in different forms Mealtime tactics (cont.) o Plain foods they can recognize o Get kids involved o Serve same food in different forms o New foods at beginning of meals Nourishing more than the body o Child’s liver Store glucose for brain function Half the size of adults o Eat every 4 hours Maintain adequate blood glucose levels Decreased blood glucose decreases attention span & learning ability Contributes to behavior problems o Quality of diet become poor as children move towards teenage o Consumption of sodium, sugar, saturated and cholesterol increase o Consumption of milk, fruits & veggies decrease Teens (13-19 Years) Gender-related Differences o Wide differences Height & weight o Appetite increases o Girls Usually taller & heavier than boys o Boys Growth spurts begin Muscle growth Feeding the teen machine o Dieting can prevent growing to full height o Bones take in the most calcium during teens &early 20s o Pizza can be healthful food choices (whole grain crust, low fat cheese, lean meat and veggies) You never outgrow your need for a good diet o Anemia o Dental caries o Under nutrition o low calcium level o Eating disorder Nutrition for Elderly Incidence of many diseases increase with age o Causes of the diseases often unrelated to aging Aging is not a disease o Diets high in saturated fat & salt &low fiber o Smoking o Physical inactivity o Excessive stress o Or other “bad” habits Living in the bonus round (diet & life Expectancy) People who Live longer than others o Consume breakfast o Eat fruits and vegetables more often o Regular physical activity o Take time to socialize & celebrate with friends o Diet less often Experience fewer fluctuations in body weight Breaking the chains of chronic disease development o Reducing saturated fat may slow/halt progression of heart disease o Adequate calcium intake o Regular physical activity May prevent postpone, or lessen severity of osteoporosis o Consuming enough dietary fiber (20-30 grams/day) Reduced risk of colon cancer o Fruits & vegetables (at least 5 servings/day) Delay or prevent formation of cataracts Nutrient needs of adults & the elderly o Biological processes & lifestyle changes affect caloric & nutrient needs o Physical activity, muscle mass & BMR decrease Need for calories generally declines with age o Need for certain nutrients may increase Protein Vitamin C Calcium Vitamin D Eating right during adult & elderly years o 1 or more meatless meals per week o Lean meat o One meat dish replaced with fish o < or equal to 30% total calories from fat Unsaturated fats from vegetable sources o About 55% calories from carbohydrates Mainly complex carbohydrates Balanced & adequate Diet o Judiciously select foods from the basic food groups Not all foods within respective groups are equally desirable Low fat Low cholesterol Low sodium High fiber
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