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Chem 110, Week 6 Notes

by: BritneyMoore

Chem 110, Week 6 Notes CHEM 110

CSU Pomona

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About this Document

These notes cover mol ratios, organic compounds, lewis dot structures, and molecular geometry.
Chemical Principles I
Dr. Hoda Mirafzal
Class Notes
General Chemistry
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by BritneyMoore on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 110 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Dr. Hoda Mirafzal in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Chemical Principles I in Chemistry at California State Polytechnic University.


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Date Created: 05/08/16
Tuesday 5/3.2016 ▯ Stoichiometry: to quantitive relationship between reactants and products in a chemical reaction ▯ Molar Ratio  Show the mol to mol ratio between 2 of the substances in a balanced equation  Use the coefficients of 2 substances in the equation ▯ Mole Tunnel  1. Convert grams to number of moles o mol= grams/ molar mass  2. Use mol to mol ratio  3. Convert moles to grams o grams= molar mass/ mol  Ex: 2Na 3PO 4+ 3CaCl 2  Ca 3(PO 42 + 6NaCl o CaCl2= Ca+2Cl= 40.1+2(35.5)=111.1 g/mol o Ca3(PO4)2=3Ca+2P+8O=3(40.1)+2(31)+8(16)=310.38 g/mol o 25g CaCl 2 mol CaCl 2  mol Ca 3(PO 4)2 g Ca(PO 4)2 25g CaCl2 1 mol CaCl2 1 mol Ca3(Po4)2 310.3g Ca3(Po4)2 23.3 g Ca3(Po4)2 111.1 g CaCl2 3 mol CaCl2 1 mol Ca3(Po4)2  Balanced chemical reactions give the ratios between the number of molecules or moles in a reaction  NEVER use grams directly as a ratio  The amount of the limiting reagent determines the amount of the product  Whenever you’re given information on more than 1 reactant, you have a limiting reactant and whichever reactant that yields the least amount of a product is the limiting reactant  Limiting reactant is consumed completely Organic Compounds  Contain carbon  Have covalent bonds  Have low melting points  Burn in air (Oxygen)  Form large molecules ▯ Lewis Structures  A diagram used to show the arrangement of atoms and valence electrons in a molecule  Includes both bonding electron pairs and lone pairs (non bonding electron pairs) ▯ Bonding Pairs  Single covalent bond shares 2e-  Double covalent bond shares 4e-  Triple covalent bond shares 6e- ▯ Lewis Structure Rules  1. The least electronegative atom is in the center and all other atoms bond to it  2. Count the number of Valence Electrons  3. Use 2 Valence Electrons to form each single bond between the atoms  4. Place the remaining Valence Electrons in pairs around each non central atom 1 and then the central atom to complete the octets  5. Move electron pairs to form double or triple bonds where necessary o The ultimate guide for Lewis dot structures is the total amount of valence electrons and fulfilling the octet rule ▯ Common Bonding Patterns  One bond (ALL Halogens) o  Two bonds (Oxygen and Sulfur) o  Three bonds (Nitrogen and Phosphorus) o  Four bonds (Carbon) o ▯ VSEPR  Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion  Molecules assume a geometry that minimizes repulsions between electron pairs ▯ Molecular Geometry  Molecular shape refers to the arrangement of atoms  NOT lone pairs ▯ Shapes of Molecules  Linear  Bent  Trigonal Planar  Trigonal Pyramidal  Tetrahedral ▯


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