Week 6 Notes- Chicano History
Week 6 Notes- Chicano History ETST 004
Popular in Introduction to Chicano History
Popular in Ethnic Studies
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anastassia Erudaitius on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ETST 004 at University of California Riverside taught by Dr. Lopez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Chicano History in Ethnic Studies at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
Chicano History Lecture 5/2/16 Expected to know these names for the midterm: o Joaquin Murrieta- Califas o Tiburcio Vasquez- Califas o Juan “Cheno” Cortina-Tejas o Gregorio Cortez – Tejas o Elfego Baca - Nuevo Mexico o Pablo Herrera- Nuevo Mexico o Juan Flores -- Califas o Gorras Blancas -- Nuevo Mexico Midterm will be distributed on Thursday The above people are “the Heroes of the Resistance” o In U.S. history books they are not perceived that way o But in Chicano history they are seen as the people who stood up o When it comes to history it is written by the victor Film – The Hunt for Pancho Villa In the U.S. he is seen as a killer (who murdered 17 Americans) March 9, 1916 Columbus, New Mexico o 600 came across border to attack town o Miller was shot dead on the spot o “Pancho Villa Outlawed Mexican Bandit raided Columbus New Mexico – Killed 17 Americans” – Newspaper headline Within a week 1,000s of troops would raid Mexico to capture Pancho Villa before it was over Mexico and the US would be at the brink of war Americans demanded revenge for the raid on Columbus US military mobilized (armored tanks, heavy artillery, airplanes) Pancho Villa inspired devotion and hatred o Had been a governor, a general, an outlaw, and at one time a friend of the US For over 30 years the autocratic rulers of Mexico profited off of Mexico American companies had vast holdings in Mexico Pancho Villa watched as US grew rich by exploiting Mexicans In the US – If you are working class you are most likely going to die working class One of Villas wives mentioned that he and his people had to grow up suffering in poverty o His whole life he hated aristocracy o He campaigned against injustice – fighting for the poor gaining followers 1911 Pancho Villa joined other Mexicans to overthrow the dictatorship of Diaz By 1914 Pancho Villa had a powerful fighting force employing guerilla tactics General Hue Scott argued that the US should support Pancho Villa o “If Villa continues on his course he will be considered the George Washington of Mexico” “Pancho Villa is not as bad as the others . . . “ o He cooperated with the US o Pancho Villa believed they would recognize him as the true leader of Mexico o With the US supporting him his transformation from outlaw to statesman was nearly complete Venustiano Carranza publicly declared himself the head of the revolutionary forces Carranza was very concerned about the power of The Division of the North (Pancho Villa’s men) As Carranza and Villa wrestled for power the US became worried about its holdings in Mexico Villa had always been careful to protect America’s holdings o American companies had been friendly with Villa and Villa ordered his men to not harm these companies April 1915 – The battle of Celaya o In Celaya the Division of the North suffered massive losses o It seemed as though Pancho Villa was finished o Pancho Villa had been blinded by his hatred for Cerraza Known for his military strategy but also his temper and anger Resulted in violent bloodshed In the US the official attitude towards Villa began to change o Considered him unpredictable and unstable o They felt they could deal better with Carranza than Villa 1915 – recognized Carranza as the legitimate leader of Mexico o When Villa found out he felt betrayed by Wilson o He thought Carranza signed a secret pact with the US that would put Mexico in the hands of the US government The US immediately placed an arms embargo on Pancho Villa o He could no longer buy arms and ammunition in American border towns like Columbus, New Mexico January 10 1916 – American workers bordered a train in Chihuahua city headed for a mine that had been closed for 10 years o Americans ordered off the train and stripped executed o Suffering of the Americans seemed to drive them into a frenzy o 16 American miners were dead, only one man survived o Fear gripped communities all along the border Pancho Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico o The town was completely unaware o 17 more Americans killed in the attack o American troops stationed near by chased Villa back into Mexico o American army gathered up the bodies and burned them for sanitary reasons The US cavalry didn’t know how to drive the trucks The cavalry included more than 8000 horses the horses were not used to going without water o The horses that Villa had were used to lacking food and water Villas trail led the American troops all over the state of Chihuaha Villa continued to elude Pershing and his men After three weeks in Mexico, armed with the best military equipment, Pershing still had not found Villa o The American soldiers began to realize they would never find Villa in his own terrain o Americans purposely given misinformation to protect Villa o Pershing finally realized a reliable report about Villa’s hiding place Americans asking for Villa in village A young girl yelled “the Americans are invading us” and students started throwing rocks at the soldiers Villa’s men went to City Hall and got rifles o Over 200 Mexican troops joined the chase o Americans retreated 16 miles later the Americans took refuge in a small village and returned fire turning back the Mexican forces o When the fighting was over, 1 American missing, 2 dead, and 16 wounded Pershing determined to retaliate the Mexicans were making a mockery of his technology o Demands for full scale invasion of Mexican appeared in newspapers throughout the US o Mexico is a “white-man’s land . . . if an inferior race occupies the land currently they are tenants” “Merging rapidly towards war” wrote Hue Scott Pancho Villa said to be hiding in a cave somewhere in Chihuahua o His ability to elude the American army became a proud moment for Mexicans whether they supported him or not o Carranza claimed Villa was no longer dangerous and demanded retreat of American troops Wilson refused At town Americans trying to cross, Mexican general told them they couldn’t cross The Americans fired on the Mexicans, and the Mexicans fired back and the Americans were overwhelmed the Americans died on the run humiliating defeat Carranza wanted to push the US out without war o Carranza released the American prisoners o Diplomatic talks began between the two countries but Villa reorganized his troops With newly organized guerrilla army with several thousand men and women, Villa took town one after the other The US prepared to withdraw, and Pershing declared themselves victorious o Admitted to his father-in-law that they were humiliated and retreating in defeat 1917 – the Pancho Villa Expedition/ Punitive Expedition o After 11 months the Americans failed to ever catch Villa, and had never even caught sight of him 1920 – Pancho Villa laid down his arms o Awarded a large ranch that had once been a Hacienda 1923 – Pancho Villa assassinated by political enemies Chicano History Lecture 5/4/16 4 questions There is a typo each question is actually worth 75 points Times New Roman 12 font, double spaced 1-inch margins If you use outside resources – need a reference page o In text: (Acuna p78, 1972) It is like a research assignment – wants us to use outside resources must use hardcopy references and journals he will be checking the reference page The questions are pretty lengthy expects 2-3 (“2-2.5 at least”) pages for each question Work Cited Page – MLA Question 1: o How did Chicanos go from a political system they controlled to being subjugated, and living as second-class citizens, and how was it able to be done o Also include those social revolutionaries you were told to look up and from the films Question 2: o This is where you break down and dissect the three models o Assimilate, colonialist, Marxist o Chicanos fall under the involuntary experience o Talk about voluntary and involuntary presence but make sure you conclude with involuntary o Deliberate about both Talk about both sides Question 3: o Will discuss Monday Question 4: o
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