Plsc 101 Week Eight Lecture Notes
Plsc 101 Week Eight Lecture Notes plsc 101
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by randomchic12 on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to plsc 101 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Paul Jackson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see plant science in Plant Science at Louisiana Tech University.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
1 Plsc 101 Week Eight Lecture Notes Cotton Facts scientific name = Gossypium hirsutum #1 fiber crop in the world upland cotton grown in US Texas #1 producing state (30%) grown for: cotton lint (fiber) used for: fabrics, money, carpet, twine cotton seed used for: oils, meal, animal feed, reseeding Climate avg. annual temp = >50 F needs 180200 frostfree days rainfall = 20 in (min) & 75 in (max); good distribution needs sunny weather consistent 5060% clouds is no good Botanical perennial plant (treated like an annual) 1.) flowers are white at opening & pollinate in one day 2.) after that day, bloom closes & turns pink/purplish 3.) from that point, it’s a boll (fiber fruit) 4.) start of flowering to mature boll = 78 weeks (perennial) number of bolls coincides with plants size smaller plant = fewer larger plant = more 2 selfpollinated photoperiod indeterminate (dayneutral) Methods seed planted 12 in deep seeding rate = 34 seeds per foot of row 25,000 to 50,000 plants/acre planted in March/April/May defoliant sprayed to remove leaves cotton picked (as it ripens) or stripped from stem Boll weevil female lays egg in boll larvae then feed on the cotton lint Boll Weevil Eradication Commission est. in 1992 results = increased yields & lower input costs Louisiana 2013 production: 124,415 acres harvested lint = 2,515 lbs./acre 2014 production: 164,132 acres harvested lint = 2,453 lbs./acre $127.3 million from lint $31 million from seed Soybeans Facts Genera = Glycine max native to china 3 in 1800’s used for hay used for food in early 1900’s most important legume crop US #1 producer Botanical annual crop single or multiple branching pinnately compound trifoliate leaves flowers form in leaf axils seeds born in pods (35 seeds/pod) seed color ranges from yellow to black Adaptation short day plant (sensitive) needs < 13.5 hours of day length to flower N fixer; can grow on lower fertility soils roots may reach 6 ft. deep (most top 12 in.) N fixing nodules begin developing 1014 days after germ continue developing throughout life cycle Varieties an area can have >100 varieties North early frost can kill it before maturity determinate South may mature too early for good yields indeterminate Use two types: human consumption and processing/crushing crushed for oil and soy/flour 4 seed contains 3540% protein 35% carbs 20% oil Products Soybean oil cooking oil, salad dressing, margarine inks, paints, cosmetics, caulk lecithin in candles & lubricants soybean meal livestock feed Louisiana 2013 production: 1.1 million acres harvested $773.4 million value 2014 production: 1.39 million acres harvested 57 bushels/acre $988.1 million value Rice Facts Oryza sativa principal food for >50% of world population increase in US consumption Arkansas #1 producer Longgrain rice in US top world producers: china India 5 Indonesia Adaptation hydrophyte plant that can live in an aquatic environment germinate and grow with roots underwater what about respiration? oxygen is transported from leaves to roots oxygen can be absorbed from the water need heavy textured soil to hold water can be grown from 4.58.5 pH range grows best from 5.56.5 pH flooding rice raises pH by 0.51.5 pH units Botanical annual grass tillers form panicles 100150 kernels (seeds) per panicle in spikelets Seeding rice sown 3 ways: drilled, waterseeded, or broadcast dry need good soil to seed contact 1.) drill method avoid having soil clods after flooding, clods may melt & bury seeds too deep clods bad 2.) broadcast waterseeded soil tilled prior to flooding & clods are good to have reduces seed drift clods good dropped by airplane seeds are soaked to make heavier & they sink to soil upon landing 6 3.) broadcast dry seeds distributed on ground before flooding & disked in drill method: 6090 lbs./acre broadcast by plane: 90125 lbs./acre 2 goal = 1015 plants/ft Louisiana planting dates SW LA = March 15 April 20 N LA = April 5 May 10 need avg. daily temps >60 F 2013 Production: 410,902 acres harvested 7,568 lbs./acre $490.4 million value 2014 Production: 449,362 acres harvested 7,541 lbs./acre $492.4 million value
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