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Plsc 101 Week Eight Lecture Notes

by: randomchic12

Plsc 101 Week Eight Lecture Notes plsc 101

Marketplace > Louisiana Tech University > Plant Science > plsc 101 > Plsc 101 Week Eight Lecture Notes
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About this Document

These notes cover what was discussed in class during week eight which will be on exam 4 (the final). This includes the crops of cotton, soybeans, and rice along with various facts and information a...
plant science
Dr. Paul Jackson
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by randomchic12 on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to plsc 101 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Paul Jackson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see plant science in Plant Science at Louisiana Tech University.


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Date Created: 05/08/16
1 Plsc 101 Week Eight Lecture Notes Cotton ­Facts ­scientific name = Gossypium hirsutum ­#1 fiber crop in the world ­upland cotton grown in US ­Texas #1 producing state (30%) ­grown for: ­cotton lint (fiber) ­used for: fabrics, money, carpet, twine ­cotton seed ­used for: oils, meal, animal feed, re­seeding ­Climate ­avg. annual temp = >50 F ­needs 180­200 frost­free days ­rainfall = 20 in (min) & 75 in (max); good distribution ­needs sunny weather ­consistent 50­60% clouds is no good ­Botanical ­perennial plant (treated like an annual) ­1.) flowers are white at opening & pollinate in one day ­2.) after that day, bloom closes & turns pink/purplish ­3.) from that point, it’s a boll (fiber fruit) ­4.) start of flowering to mature boll = 7­8 weeks (perennial) ­number of bolls coincides with plants size ­smaller plant = fewer ­larger plant = more 2 ­self­pollinated ­photoperiod indeterminate (day­neutral) ­Methods ­seed planted 1­2 in deep ­seeding rate = 3­4 seeds per foot of row ­25,000 to 50,000 plants/acre ­planted in March/April/May ­defoliant sprayed to remove leaves ­cotton picked (as it ripens) or stripped from stem ­Boll weevil ­female lays egg in boll ­larvae then feed on the cotton lint ­Boll Weevil Eradication Commission est. in 1992 ­results = increased yields & lower input costs ­Louisiana ­2013 production: ­124,415 acres harvested ­lint = 2,515 lbs./acre ­2014 production: ­164,132 acres harvested ­lint = 2,453 lbs./acre ­$127.3 million from lint ­$31 million from seed Soybeans ­Facts ­Genera = Glycine max ­native to china 3 ­in 1800’s used for hay ­used for food in early 1900’s ­most important legume crop ­US #1 producer ­Botanical ­annual crop ­single or multiple branching ­pinnately compound trifoliate leaves ­flowers form in leaf axils ­seeds born in pods (3­5 seeds/pod) ­seed color ranges from yellow to black ­Adaptation ­short day plant (sensitive) ­needs < 13.5 hours of day length to flower ­N fixer; can grow on lower fertility soils ­roots may reach 6 ft. deep (most top 12 in.) ­N fixing nodules begin developing 10­14 days after germ ­continue developing throughout life cycle ­Varieties ­an area can have >100 varieties ­North ­early frost can kill it before maturity ­determinate ­South ­may mature too early for good yields ­indeterminate ­Use ­two types: human consumption and processing/crushing ­crushed for oil and soy/flour 4 ­seed contains ­35­40% protein ­35% carbs ­20% oil ­Products ­Soybean oil ­cooking oil, salad dressing, margarine ­inks, paints, cosmetics, caulk ­lecithin in candles & lubricants ­soybean meal ­livestock feed ­Louisiana ­2013 production: ­1.1 million acres harvested ­$773.4 million value ­2014 production: ­1.39 million acres harvested ­57 bushels/acre ­$988.1 million value Rice ­Facts ­Oryza sativa ­principal food for >50% of world population ­increase in US consumption ­Arkansas #1 producer ­Long­grain rice in US ­top world producers: ­china ­India 5 ­Indonesia ­Adaptation ­hydrophyte­ plant that can live in an aquatic environment ­germinate and grow with roots underwater ­what about respiration? ­oxygen is transported from leaves to roots ­oxygen can be absorbed from the water ­need heavy textured soil to hold water ­can be grown from 4.5­8.5 pH range ­grows best from 5.5­6.5 pH ­flooding rice raises pH by 0.5­1.5 pH units ­Botanical ­annual grass ­tillers form panicles ­100­150 kernels (seeds) per panicle in spikelets ­Seeding ­rice sown 3 ways: ­drilled, water­seeded, or broadcast dry ­need good soil to seed contact ­1.) drill method ­avoid having soil clods ­after flooding, clods may melt & bury seeds too deep ­clods bad ­2.) broadcast water­seeded ­soil tilled prior to flooding & clods are good to have ­reduces seed drift ­clods good ­dropped by airplane ­seeds are soaked to make heavier & they sink to soil upon landing 6 ­3.) broadcast dry ­seeds distributed on ground before flooding & disked in ­drill method: 60­90 lbs./acre ­broadcast by plane: 90­125 lbs./acre 2 ­goal = 10­15 plants/ft ­Louisiana ­planting dates ­SW LA = March 15­ April 20 ­N LA = April 5­ May 10 ­need avg. daily temps >60 F ­2013 Production: ­410,902 acres harvested ­7,568 lbs./acre ­$490.4 million value ­2014 Production: ­449,362 acres harvested ­7,541 lbs./acre ­$492.4 million value


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