Week 14 Notes
Week 14 Notes History 110A
Cal State Fullerton
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Veronica Barragan on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 110A at California State University - Fullerton taught by Stefan Chrissanthos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see World Civilization to 16th Century in History at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
A. The Century of the Ship a. Many different civilizations, independently of one another, began building navies and sending out voyages of exploration i. They do this separately, but they do it around the same time ii. During this century the Chinese and Europeans sent out great voyages that would have an impact on the world B. China a. The Mongols controlled China for a long time. Kung la khan was a Mongol, but he was a big fan of Chinese civilization. i. He did not rule as a Mongol Khan but instead as a Chinese emperor. b. In 1368, the Chinese rose up in rebellion and overthrew the Mongol Empire. i. The Mongols were driven out of china, china became independent once again, and China’s third great dynasty was established. ii. 1368 marks the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, they ruled China from 1368-1644. c. Yung-lo i. Means “Ever-lasting Joy” ii. Third main emperor, ruled from 1402-1424 iii. When he became emperor, he had a number of ambitious goals 1. First of all, he wanted to demonstrate to the world that the Chinese were back. 2. The Chinese had not been unified and powerful for 700 years, not since the Tang Dynasty. 3. He wanted to demonstrate that he was the most powerful ruler on Earth and in the history of the world 4. As part of that, he wanted to demonstrate to everyone that China was the most powerful country in the word iv. There were a number ways he was going to this, one way was that he came up with the tribute system v. Two way to expand the Tribute system 1. The first was by land 2. The other way to expand was by sea vi. He expanded the army until there were 2 million men. He would first send out ambassadors and they were always polite and friendly. They would request that the rulers participate in the tribute system. If the rulers agreed they would have to go to Beijing in person and they would have to take tribute to Yung-lo. It could be anything that Yung-lo asked for. They would have to get down on their knees in front of Yung-lo and they would have to kow tow, which means bang head, this was a way of submission. If they said know to the tribute system, Yung-lo would send in his army and the rulers would be defeated, dragged to Beijing, and forced to kow tow and then they would be killed and a knew native ruler would be appointed vii. During the reign of Yung-lo, for the first time ever, the Chinese built a large navy 1. It was a navy consisting of more than 300 ships making it the biggest. Chinese technology was the most advanced, which means they were the most advanced. 2. They had the compass, rudimentary cannons, and more. 3. They had the biggest wooden ships ever built 4. Ships were not only bigger, but faster, they could carry a large army viii. All together the Chinese sent out 7 explorations, all were led by the Chinese admiral Cheng Ho. They occurred from 1405-1433.6 were during the reign of Yung-lo and one was after his death. ix. Wherever the Chinese they went they politely asked to join the tribute system x. In Africa, the Chinese saw an animal, which resembled an animal from Chinese mythology. This animal only appeared when heaven was happy. The animal was a giraffe. xi. After the death of Yung-lo they voluntarily gave up naval supremacy. The government tried to destroy the records of the naval voyages, but some still survived. C. Europe a. A few year later the Europeans started to send out voyages, the country that led the way was Portugal. i. They were a part of a trade network, they like spices the most because they helped food taste better and helped preserve food. The goods were very expensive. ii. The Portuguese built ships and sent out ships. They wanted an east route to get goods by sea rather than Land. iii. Each year they would send out voyages and each time they would a little bit more south. b. Dias i. In 1487 he became the sail across the tip of Africa and into the Indian Ocean. ii. He does not go further, but proves that it can be done c. Da Gamma i. First Europe to sail around Africa to India and back. ii. Took 2 years, it was dangerous, he lost ¾ ships and 75% of his men, but he brings home a cargo of spices, which were worth 60 times what the voyage cost. iii. Because the profits were so great, these voyages would continue d. Other Europeans knew what Portugal was doing and wanted to get involved, Ferdinand and Isabella, the King and Queen of Spain i. They were willing to listen to an Italian, his name was Christopher Columbus, and he told them that the world is round, he also tells them the world is relatively small. Ferdinand and Isabella give three ships ii. He goes west trying to get east. He sells for two months and they see nothing. His men grow more and more afraid. They tell Columbus that if they don’t see land in three days they will turn back. Luckily for Columbus they find a tiny island two days later its name is San Salvador. iii. Columbus is in the Caribbean, but things he is in the Indies. He then finds Cuba and though it was Japan and tells everyone the good news. iv. Ferdinand and Isabella give him three more voyages, which means four total. v. Columbus eventually finds South America, Central America, and he dies convinced that he had found the East. vi. It was only a little while later that it was discovered that he found was not the Asias, but a new world. Columbus discoveries had a huge impact. vii. When Columbus got off his boat in San Salvador was a major turning point in history. viii. Within a century of Columbus arrival in the Americas, 90% of the native population died off. The fall of American Empires The Incas and Aztecs did not know about each other A. Fall of Aztecs a. Montezuma II i. In 1502, Montezuma II became the Aztec king. ii. He inherited the greatest empire seen in North America. Ruled from 1502- 1520 iii. He was scared of the future because during his reign there were a lot of natural disasters such as earthquakes, flooding, famine iv. During his reign a comet was seen in the sky and the people saw it as a sign that something big and bad was going to happen. v. He began receiving strange reports from the eastern coast of Mexico. 1. He heard that there were strange white men with chalk faces poking around the Yucatan. He also heard from one of his own tax collectors that he had seen tiny hills moving on the sea, the Spanish were beginning to explore the eastern coast of Mexico. vi. In 1519 the Spanish finally heard about the Aztec Empire, s they sent an expedition to make contact with the Aztecs. 1. The expedition was led by Hernan Cortes. 2. He was supposed to make normal relations with the Aztecs. 3. They did not hesitate to attack and conquer 4. In 1519, Cortes and his men land on the eastern coast of Mexico and start heading west towards the Aztec Empire a. They had steel armor and weapons, guns and cannons and the horse. The Aztecs had no metal armor or weapons. They did not have guns or canons or the horse. b. Cortes notices that most people are not Aztecs and that they hate the Aztecs and he decides this would be a valuable asset c. Montezuma and his men meet with Cortes and his men. d. The Spanish quickly prove that they are not good guys because they keeps stealing things of value. vii. Montezuma dies and is replaced by his brother Quitlahuac, who believes that the Spanish are invaders that need to be driven out viii. A couple of weeks later Cortes and his men wake up and notice the Aztecs are missing, so Cortes and his men try to sneak out at night. 1. Once they are out in the causeway the Aztecs attack and hundreds of Spanish soldiers died, mainly because they drowned. 2. Known as the battle of the night of sorrows 3. Cortes escapes and wants revenge, he recruits people from Cuba and others who hated the Aztecs, such as natives 4. Cortes returns and attacks the Aztec capital, The Aztecs hold out for months, but finally they are forced to surrender and Tenochtitlan. 5. The biggest reason for Spanish success was disease, especially smallpox. 6. Cortes becomes a big hero and becomes incredibly wealthy, extremely powerful, so he was not punished, but instead rewarded B. Fall of the Incas a. Huayna Capac i. he was the Incan king ii. During this time the Incas also suffered a strange number of natural occurrences, they also saw the same comet the Montezuma and the Aztecs. iii. Something bad did happen the Spanish were coming iv. They arrive in 1526 in an expedition led by Francisco Pizzaro, he came from the same hometown in Spain as Hernan Cortes, so he knows about the success Cortes had. v. Pizzaro and his men land in the city of Tumbes, they look around, realize it is part of a great civilization, steal some gold, silver, and a llama, they kidnap some of the locals in order to act as translators and then they leave vi. They go back to Spain and the king is impressed and gives Pizzaro a royal license which allows him to go back and try to conquer the Incan empire. vii. Even though Pizarro and his men did not stay long in South America, they did stay long enough to spread their diseases, especially small pox. 1. Huayna Capac himself dies of small pox and is succeeded by one of his sons, Huascar. 2. Huascar did not last very long because of Atahualpa, who was his brother. 3. Atahualpa rises up in rebellion and the Incan Empire is plunged into a civil war known as the war between the brothers. 4. Atahualpa wins the civil war, but he takes over an empire that has been severely weakened by disease and civil war. 5. It was bad luck for the Incas that this was the exact year that the Spanish return. a. Pizzaro returned with 160 men and sends a letter to Atahualpa requesting a meeting and Atahualpa agrees. b. The meeting takes place in Cajamarca in the Cajamarca Plaza. c. Pizzaro decides that he was going to try and kidnap Atahualpa because if he captures the king he can conquer the Empire. d. Pizzaro had 160 men and Atahualpa has 80,000 men e. However he does not take all 80,000 men so instead he take 5,000 men and since the plaza is relatively small so he is only surrounded by a few hundred soldiers. The soldiers he did take were unarmed. 6. Pizzaro sends Atahualpa a priest who hands Atahualpa a bible and says that the bible speaks the truth. 7. The priest demands that Atahualpa surrender and Atahualpa says no and throws the bible in the ground, so he absolves all the bad stuff the Incan soldiers are about to do. 8. The Spanish attack and the plan works because Atahualpa is captured. 9. Pizzaro tells Atahualpa that he just wants money and that he will leave, so Atahualpa gives him the biggest ransom ever, but Pizzaro stays and kills Atahualpa on the charge of treason. a. Treason against Huascar and the Incan Empire and is declared guilty. i. He converts to Christianity and is strangled. viii. Manco is a brother of Atahualpa and is crowned king because Pizzaro thought he was a wimp and he could be a puppet king. 1. Manco was not a wimp and leads a rebellion and although they did win a few battles the Spanish ended up winning. 2. Some Incas managed to escape and Manco leads them somewhere and establish an Inca Empire exile, which lasts until 1572 when the last Inca king Tupac is captured by the Spanish and executed. 3. Marks the end of the Inca empire.
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