ANS 2: Week 6 Notes
ANS 2: Week 6 Notes ANS 002
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mackenzie Hayes on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANS 002 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. James Murray in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Introductory Animal Science in Animal Science at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
ANS 2: Week 6 Notes (5/2) ● Absorption of Nutrients: ○ Very few can go hroughmembrane w/o active transport ○ Passive Transport:diffusion across membrane (water) ○ Active:uses energy + transport across membrane (other nutrients) ■ Also called : endocytosis / phagocytosis ■ Use of transporter proteins (embedded in membrane) ■ Receptors on membrane that bind to nutrients ■ Proteins on other side of membrane release nutrients to blood ○ *know flow chart* ● Bodies don’t get all of the energy present in food (not all available) ○ Lose energy through metabolic processes + unavailability ○ Feces = undigested material ○ Digestible Energy - Gas/Urine = Metabolizable Energy ○ Metabolizable Energy - Energy Burned = Net Energy ■ Used for maintenance or production ■ Body maintenance first → leftover used for production/reproduction ○ Body will metabolize itself if not given enough nutrients ■ Immune system decreases ○ DE = Gross E - E Feces ○ ME = DE - E Urine/Gas ○ NE = ME - E Burned ○ TDN = total digestible nutrients ● Gut Microbiota: ○ Terms: ■ Microbiota: all microbes living inside the gut ■ Microbiome: microbes, their genetic elements, + interactions w/ environment ■ Metagenome: genetic content of a microbial population ■ Metatranscriptome: functions of a microbial population ○ Microbial Diversity: ■ 10^4 Bacteria in gut ■ ~500 - 1000 species → 1 kg of bodyweight ■ Have 100x more genetic material than the host ● Can do many more functions ■ Commensal: living with you ■ Influenced by: diet, antibiotics, disease, genetics ○ Types of Bacteria change over the length of the GI tract ■ Main Phyla: bacteroidetes, firmicutes, actinobacteria, proteobacteria ○ Functions of GI tract Microbiome: ■ *know chart* ● Ruminant Digestion: ○ Bacteria → make volatile fatty acids ■ Break plant polysaccharides into simple sugars ■ Microbes use glucose as energy source to grow ■ VFA are the end product → source of energy for cow ○ Fate of VFA: ■ Energy ■ Muscle - protein synthesis ■ Adipose - fat synthesis ■ Mammary gland - fat and lactose synthesis ○ Many bacteria aren’t culturable ■ Now we can put “barcodes” and sample hundreds (5/4) ● 2 General Concepts: ○ Animals are very similar and what makes them different are their environment/diets ■ Evolved to adapt to different environments ○ Nutrition and toxicology are just a continuum ■ From nutrient deficient to excess w/ intolerance somewhere in between ● Definition of Fish ○ Cold blooded vertebrates with gill breathing, fins, swim bladder ○ Depends primarily on water as a living medium ● *Turta = mostly red meat (while most others are white) ○ more hypochondrial ● Species in the Animal Kingdom ○ Finfish – 20,000 ○ Birds – 8,600 ○ Mammals – 4,500 ○ Reptiles – 6,000 ○ Amphibians – 2,500 ● Fish: ○ Many different shapes of mouth ■ Surface feeder = terminal mouth ○ Many different dentitions ○ Shape of stomach: ■ Omnivore (catfish) = bigger ○ Carnivore (trout) = pipe ■ Intestine / Length of GI tract differs ○ Protein much easier to digest than lipid ■ Small (villi) vs. large intestine determined by width not length ○ All depends upon the animal’s diet ● Definition of Nutrition: ○ Integration of knowledge of biochemistry and physiology into a unifying concept of the relationship between an organism and its nutrient supply ○ A science dealing with the relationship between food and organism ○ Similar essential nutrients for all animals including fish ● Toxicology: ○ Study of relationship between dose and its effects on the organism ○ All things are poison / nothing is without poison ■ Only dose can make it poisonous ● General Concept 1: ○ Animals are very similar and what makes them different are their environment ○ Why are fish different from land creatures? ■ Water and the adaptations that come with it ○ Why mostly cold blooded? ■ Water has high thermal conductivity ■ High specific heat capacity (1 cal/g/degree C) ● Why Fish Nutrition?: ○ Animal Scientist: production oriented ■ Aquaculture/fish farming: over 50% of cost is feed ○ Fish biologist: ecologically oriented ■ Concerning survival and populations of fish in the wild ● Main Concern: ○ Animal Scientist/Nutritionist ■ Growth and feed efficiency ■ Max growth for least feed ○ Fish ecologist ■ Growth and reproduction ■ Max growth/repro for least energy (5/6) ● Studying Sturgeon: ○ Lactose intolerant ○ Diabetic like ● Lactose intolerant: ○ Low lactose levels in the bush boarder membrane in GI tract ○ Results in high water content in the distal intestine (spiral valve) ● Diabetic like: carbohydrate intolerance ○ Able to absorb glucose but unable to metabolize it ■ Persistent hyperglycemia ○ Usually it can be determined by an oral challenge test ■ Uses gelatin capsule ● Developing better Oral Challenge test ○ Combined existing ○ Dorsal Aorta Cannulation ○ Stomach Intubation ○ Urinary Catheterization ○ (stress from handling increases cortisol à increase plasma glucose levels- interferes with results) ● General Concept 2: ○ Nutrition and toxicology is just a continuum ○ From nutrient deficient to excess with intolerance somewhere in between ● Selenium Toxicology: ○ Requirement: ■ .25 - .70 mg/kg required in diet (essential) ○ Toxicity Levels: ■ Prolonged exposure to 3 mg/kg can be toxic to some fish ■ Dose response experiment ○ Methionine also essential ■ Developed method of Selenomethionine (SeMet) absorption ● Everted Gut Sleeve Method ● Cutting small segment of GI tract ● Incubation for 4 to 8 minutes ■ 1. Define what you know ■ 2. Ask a question ■ 3. Design an experiment ● Future Research: ○ Nutritional Status and Physiological Tolerances to Key Environmental Stressors by Sturgeon ○ 1. Plane of nutrition ■ mortality, growth, FE, Body Comp., RNA/DNA, liver glycogen, lipid, etc. ○ 2. Heat Shock / Salinity Challenge ■ HSP, Caspase, Plasma Osmolarity, etc. ○ Essentially testing effects of Global Warming
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