SOC 271 Week 6 Notes
SOC 271 Week 6 Notes Soc 271A
Popular in Social deviance and social control
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor McAvoy on Monday May 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 271A at University of Washington taught by April Fernandes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Social deviance and social control in Sociology at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 05/09/16
Week 6 Lecture 16 Monday, May 2, 2016 Announcements Start thinking about deviant topic paper Thursday- topic paper idea paragraph - no section Mental illness Is it defined as deviant? Who defines? Are there certain mental illness that are considered more deviant? What is the current definition of mental illness ? How does that differ from it's origins? Exorcisms, witch hunts How is it influenced by outside factors ? What is the current perception of mental illness? Why? What image does mental illness conjure in your mind? How is the label of mental illness and .or the pharmaceuticals used to treat the illness a form of social control? Turner and Edgley (1983) Drugcraft Mental illness and social context Illness as socially constructed - behaviors and feelings for reactions that are "unacceptable" Interpretation of behaviors, motives and justifications Transforming "badness" into "madness"- we see behaviors that we don’t like and blame them on mental illness to then justify the "cure" for social control We do not understand many causes of mental illness, so we understand them in social construction Mysteries of brain chemistry and link to behavior Incentives of making mental illness a disease EX: masturbation was seen as evil and dangerous for health and now it is seen as acceptable and even healthy Vocabularies of motive Understandable context, no ambiguity, total control Everything has to be explained and we need a reason for example to be depressed Examples- Turner and Edgley (1983) Drugcraft Depression Definition dependent on social processes Spit and saliva - saliva inside the mouth, spit outside "if depression is a chemically induced disease, so is happiness" - Szasz Problems with living Grief has to have socially acceptable Time of grieving Source of grief - acceptable reason How is it affecting the person EX: man grieving for his wife has acceptable reason and not mental illness but a man grieving because of depression does not have an acceptable reason and is mental illness Schizophrenia Acceptable versus unacceptable behavior Who? What? When? What is accepted as socially acceptable "it is not hearing voices that constitutes mental illness, but whose voice is being heard" Context matters: other perspectives are sometimes useful Examples Prayers Talking to God and saints Friends and family that have passed on Believe in heaven Seen as socially acceptable because it has a religious context Age plays a big role- socially construct acceptable behavior by age Context- confines of her home vs public spaces Mental illness and violence According to the Substance abuse and mental health services administration 61 percent of Americans think that people with schizophrenia are likely to be dangerous to others Why is this a popular perception? Media: 60 percent were shown to be involved in crime or violence (three times average rate) In addition "studies showed that as many as 75 percent of stories dealing with mental illness focus on violence (Shain and Phillips 1991) Unpredictability of worst cases 3-5% of crimes linked to mental illness (Applebaum, 2010) When drugs and alcohol taken out of the mix We can link the scare of schizophrenia to the civil rights movement -Malcom X (1964) "We declare our right on this earth to be a man, to be a human being, to be respected as a human being, to be given the rights of a human being in this society, on this earth, in this day, which we intent to bring into existence by any means necessary."- Malcolm X (1964) "No, I'm not an American. I'm one of the 22 million black people who are the victims of Americanism. One of the 22 million black people who are the victims of democracy, nothing but disguised hypocrisy. So, I'm not standing here speaking to you as an American, or a patriot, or a flag-saluter, or a flag-waver - no, not I. I'm speaking as a victim of this American system. And I see America through the eyes of the victim. I don't see any American dream; I see an American nightmare." "That's why, in 1964, it's time now for you and me to become more politically mature and realize what the ballot is for; what we're supposed to get when we cast a ballot; and that if we don't cast a ballot, it's going to end up in a situation where we're going to have to cast a bullet. It's either a ballot or a bullet." Believed to be paranoid schizophrenic- quotes that were used against him would not be seen as evidence of schizophrenia Sees himself as a victim of the American system Oppression and opposition to American values for the few people Meant dismantling of the system- threat to status quo and power structure- fear of how we understand society and giving a group rights they didn’t have before Police and law made the leap to put people who supported the civil rights movement as violent and mentally ill 90% of schizophrenics never exhibit violent tendencies (Swanson 2010) More likely to be victimized Violent crimes All victims 39.93 Persons with severe mental illness 168.21 Assault All victims 30.80 Persons with SMI 127.35 Theft All victims 2.39 Persons with SMI 142.63 Many people with SMI are homeless and may be at higher risk of crime Many institutions were shut down because they were inhumane Many people came back from Vietnam with PTSD and funding was cut for social services and veterans were not treated and had nowhere else to go Mentally ill and gun rights Revocation of gun rights After hospitalization or finding of mental incompetence Safety of self and general public Restoration of rights Hearing by judge after petition by individual Recommendations (if needed) made often by medical physicians Medical records not shared across state lines Ryan Anthony, 35 Lost his job, separation from wife Filed a petition to gain gun rights in 2002 Three weeks later committed suicide Mike Fleenor, attorney in Pulaski County "I think that reasonable people can disagree about issues of the Second Amendment and gun control and things like that, but I don't believe that any reasonable person believes that a mentally ill person needs a firearm. The public has a right to be safe in their community." Chris Cox, NRA lobbyist "we don't want to treat our soldiers as potential criminals because they're struggling with the aftermath of dealing with their service." Switched burden of proof from "clear and convincing evidence" to "preponderance of evidence" When does mental illness end? Does it? How can this be proven? Actuarial approach: psychiatric diagnosis, history of violence and anger control as risk assessment model Not understood and underutilized Can violence be predicted? Is this a necessary form of social control? How? Why? Week 6 Lecture 17 Wednesday, May 4, 2016 Ending of film- Is it a boy or is it a girl? American academy of pediatrics position on intersexuality Any child with ambiguous gender could be turned into a girl or a boy by surgery Devore can't find anyone who is happy with their surgery Cheryl Chase is working in congress to stop early gender assignment She believes that if the gender is not life threatening, there should be no surgery The child should go home with gender with no surgery and that the child should decide when they are old enough No one is completely male or female because gender is more fluid than thought Gender is changing for everyone Themes Norm of gender and expectation Socialization EX: school- learning how to behave in society EX: Family and peers EX: shopping for baby shower- pink and blue, what girls play with and what boys play with Doctors as the ultimate social constructionists of gender - they have status and authority to make decisions Norm: Children can't decide what gender they are- activists say we should wait till the child knows Context - gender is a work in progress for everybody Mental illness Rosenhan (1973)- Being sane The context of sanity / insanity How mental illness diagnoses occur Within the individual or context specific? Flawed psychological categorizations "Psychiatric diagnoses in this view are in the minds of the observes and are not valid summaries of characteristics displayed by the observed" Segregation between staff and patients Little time spent with patients Type 2 error: False positive rather than false negative Diagnoses focuses on the individual and not context Labeling theory Participants were told to say symptoms of mental illness →→ labeled schizophrenic →→ interactions ↓ Staff: depersonalization to physical abuse behaviors of writing and talking were seen as evidence Other patients: recognize the participants as not mentally ill not credible When they were released, they were marked as "in remission" suggesting that the label will still hold The doctors and the staff focus on the individual and not the context Sexual deviance What is deviant sexually? Why are certain acts seen as more deviant than others? Has this changed over time? Where do sexual norms come from? Which norms? Who decides? How do you define and control a personal and mostly private act? Why do we have laws against sexual behavior? What are some behaviors that are seen as deviant? Homosexual sex Polygamy Promiscuity for women Bestiality Under age sex Pedophilia Necrophilia Age BDSM Incest Porn industry Non-consensual Examples Hugh Hefner Playboy mansion Young and many girls Sometimes marries Is this deviant No? Seen as role model Yes? Big age gap Polygamy is illegal but why is what Hugh Hefner's style illegal? Class structure Religious values Contract Commitment More of a character known for what he does Week 6 Lecture 18 Friday, May 6, 2016 Word of the day- Cotija- Mexican cheese Documentary Love me, Love my doll How is deviance defined in the documentary? Differing from societal norms in sexual activity- specifically engaging in sex with an inanimate object or having a relationship with an inanimate object rather than a person. In some cases, it is preferring sex with dolls over humans. How does it relate with the Janus and Janus article? The Janus and Janus article explains what sexual acts society views as deviant based on these relationship, procreation, interaction, and social norms. The deviance is differing from these norms but it also explains how most people do not see an act as deviant if it does not hurt themselves or others involved. In that way the dolls could be seen as not-deviant. Still, different reasons for sexual activity define the deviance as well. Some reasons for sex with dolls may be acceptable while others may not. Why is it seen as deviant? Social interaction problems/ norms of social interaction Sex is normally with humans- adding an inanimate object is deviant to us Objectification and control- consent- real women have rights to say no No reproduction/procreation Not in a marriage relationship Do the men in the documentary view themselves as deviant? The men in the documentary do recognize the perception of societal norms and how they are different but they do not see themselves as deviant because they provide different reasons for their love of dolls and that it perfectly normal if you think about it. Where is the complexity? Is anyone getting hurt by the act? If not, it’s that person's own problem Differing reasons for sexual acts may be acceptable while others may not Personal profiles Davecat Explains the difference between being alone and being lonely Likes the stoicism and beauty of mannequins even at an early age Misses his doll after sending her out for repairs Each doll costs 4,000 pounds Views women as unobtainable but having a doll makes it not as bad One man became a photographer since getting his dolls and makes "family photos" Lived with his mother until she died Thinks they have improved his quality of life "tremendously" Gordon Relationships with humans are only temporary Thinks the reason he can't get a relationship because of the way he looks Doesn't want to be a doormat California factory 400 orders a year 7 dolls a week Matt Real doll creator Certain people benefit from these dolls like certain people benefit from shoe insoles, doesn’t see the people who use the dolls as deviant, just different Mike Views his dolls as a hobby Would like a girl in his life who would be ok with his affection for dolls Has a girlfriend now Jody- both could see it as long-term He would give up dolls for the right woman Doll collection has grown to where he doesn't have any more space to contain them Jody feels somewhat confused Slade Real doll repairer Sense of responsibility and job Care in handling but not emotional attachment Girlfriend Rebecca his girlfriend felt uncomfortable physically because they have perfect bodies Explains sex with dolls as a very high form of masturbation Discussion section 6 Thursday, May 5, 2016 Turner and Edgley (1983) 1. Frame the problem Comparing the treatment of mental illness in society in the era of witchcraft and how that has changed over time in social contexts 2. What was the primary research question Challenging the bio-chemical view of mental illness and studying the effects of social treatment 3. What are the organic biochemical theories? What are the weaknesses of this theory? Organic biochemical theories say that metal illness is caused by chemicals in the brain Weaknesses: ignores social construction and how mental illness is treated over time- there's not enough information about the organic biochemical background that causes mental illness Also ignores personal family history 4. What are the factors that influence the social construction of mental illness Socioeconomic status, age, race, gender, Fear of mental illness and stigmas moral panic Motives and actions, timeframe of depression vs grief 5. Major findings Organic biochemical theories are myth because they do not explain how people with mental illness are treated and defined They are also a myth in the sense that they are in the cultural mythology of metal illness- stigma that schizophrenic people are violent 6. About Rosenhan Pseudo patients feigned mental illness and were admitted to the hospital and once they were admitted, they were assumed insane because they were already labeled that way even after being normal Wiliams and Weinberg (2003) 1. Fame the problem Interviewed 114 men who self-identified as zoophile about their desires, identity, balance of human and animal desires, activities Consensus - bestiality Conflict - zoophilia These are not the same because sexual love and relationship is valued in zoophilia and bestility things only of sex 2. Primary research question How society views zoophilia and how the people involved in it view the act, beliefs, setting and how it relates to social context 3. What data did they use Member of zoophiles- 114 men Questionnaires Zoophillia farms Fieldwork They are a vulnerable population so you have to get a good sample called snowball sample- among friends and acquaintances 4. Findings 66% prefer sex with animals Desire for affection and pleasure 93% affection and love
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