PSY 438 CH 17 class notes
PSY 438 CH 17 class notes 438
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Benny Ye on Tuesday May 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 438 at University at Buffalo taught by Joyce Lacy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Sport Psychology in Psychlogy at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 05/10/16
Exercise and Psychological well being Exercise, anxiety and depression Regular exercise is associated, not it is not a CAUSE and EFFECT relationship, for reducing anxiety and depression Acute effects of exercise are immediate, but temporary lasting 2 to 48 hours after exercise Chronic effects of exercise are long lasting changes overtime Aerobic exercise: more long term that trains the heart and lungs, improves circulation Anaerobic exercise: shorter term involving muscular training [ e.g. weightlifting] Reduction of state anxiety happens when aerobic exercises are at 30 to 70% intensity, but for anaerobic effects are seen at 30% to 50% of maximum intensity Seems beneficial to anyone regardless of anxiety levels, sex, age, but more profound effect on those with already lower levels of anxiety - Longer exercise duration (x > 30mins) spells for more reduction of stress Chronic exercise and mental health Studies on chronic effects lasts 2-4 months with at least 3 session per week - Physical fitness is positively associated with mental health and well being - Associated with reductions in neuroticism [tendency to change mood] - Physiological indicators of stress reduced [rapid heart rate, stress hormone] Reduction of depression As a whole exercise is the number one self-prescribed method to reduce depression emotions - Correlational negative relationship with exercise and depression - Aerobic and anaerobic both beneficial to reducing cortisol levels - Severe depression still requires psychological counselling and exercise has limited effect - Program lasting over 9 weeks with 3 to 4 sessions per week produce higher anti- depressive effect About 50% of people drop out of their exercise program, and many more do not even start Exercise and Mood Changes Mood is defined as a host of transient fluctuating affective emotional state - Increases feelings of vigor, energy while decreasing fatigue, anger and depression - Surefire way to improve mood state immediately - Allowing participants to choose their mode of exercise associated with lower scores of negative affect - Perception of fitness > actual fitness level for boosting mood Critiques 1. Are those that have better mood more likely to exercise? 2. While in a better mood, the likelihood of exercise increases Physiological explanation - Cerebral blood flow - Increase in oxygen consumption and delivery of oxygen - Muscle tension decreases - Brain NTs are emitting effects Psychological explanation - Enhanced feeling of control - Confidence and self efficacy - Self esteem o Self concept refers to how we feel about ourselves and capabilities o Our bodies are part of us, so improved physique enhances self concept - Social interactions made Exercise and personality - Positive changes in self concept and self esteem were associated with participating in PE class - Programs designed to enhance self esteem, emphasize feelings of success, competence - Hardiness is a personality disposition, hardiness and exercising o Control or commitment to adapt to novel stimuli (adaptability, resiliency) Exercise and Cognitive Functioning - Aerobic exercise has a boosting effect on one’s brain functioning and cognition o Executive functioning (making daily plans), higher order abstract/critical thinking are improved o Alzheimer’s disease and dementia onset delayed with exercise o Moderate intensity training for improving executive functioning o High intensity improved information processing speed o ADHD children sees improvement in their decision making with moderate level of exercise o Physical activity increased children’s intrinsic motivation and competence Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults - Exercise benefits for Older adults o E.g. planning, working memory, coordination, task managing o Protection of the brain from aging by engaging in aerobic exercise When fitness training has both strength and flexibility components, also duration of the exercise exceeds 30 mins then there is a greater effect Transitions out of Sport Athletes prefer to control when they can When they cannot choose when to retire retire - Reduced confidence in performance - Adds to their psych. Well being - Loss of excitement - Family time - Resentful of being forced to retire - Winning and losing becomes less Requires stress management techniques stressful Exercise and Quality of Life Individuals perception of their position in life in the context of future, values or expectations (Can they satisfy their own psychological desires) Physically active people tend to be in better mood, higher ability to deal with problems, and positive attitudes Older adults that are physically active better overall health, Income, education, marital status or age not always positively correlated with quality of life Runners high - - A positive sensation of heightened well - /being, appreciation of surroundings and transcendence of time/space - Requires a long rhythmic activity to initiate the euphoria How to get the high? o Few distractions while running o Cool, calm tranquil weather o At least 3o minutes of running All runners experience the high differently and its conditions differentiates on the runner’s experience and mood Mirror Problem in Gyms Many sedentary women report that have lower perceptions of self-focus more on their physique and shape, prefer not to have mirrors Exercise as a component of therapy Despite the psychological benefits of exercise it should not be used in all depression cases, streses or disorders. The should be used in addition to other treatment, therapies.
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