Hershey Ch 9-12 Notes
Hershey Ch 9-12 Notes POLS 302
Popular in Political Parties and Elections
Popular in Liberal Arts
This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Smith on Tuesday May 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 302 at Colorado State University taught by Kyle Saunders in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Political Parties and Elections in Liberal Arts at Colorado State University.
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Hershey Chapter 9 How Parties Choose Candidates o Primary (direct primary) ▪ The party electorate chooses which candidates will run for office under the party’s label o General election ▪ All voters can choose between the parties’ nominees for each office ● How the Nomination Process Evolved o Nominations by Caucus ▪ Local party meetings to choose candidates for county offices ▪ Didn’t include all major figures of the party o Nominations by Convention ▪ Main means of electing candidates in the 1800’s ▪ Composed of delegates chosen by state and local party leaders ▪ Were not representative ● Party leaders chose the delegates and managed the conventions o Nominations by Direct Primaries ▪ The Progressives suggested that voters should be able to select their party’s candidates for each office directly rather than letting party leaders make the choices ▪ The Progressives used these primaries as a way to stop economic monopoly ▪ Primaries would take away the party organizations most important power – nomination of candidates – and give it instead to party voters ▪ Primaries wer not the first cuase of party weakness in the U.S. ▪ Because of primaries, party leaders in America have less control over who will receive the party nomination than in most other democracies. ● The Current Mix of Primaries and Conventions o Every state has a primary for the election of some officials, but some have a mix of primaries and conventions because each state is allowed to choose their voting system ● Types of Primaries o Closed primaries ▪ Only voters who have formally declared their affiliation with a party can participate ▪ Have to register with a certain party prior to the election ▪ Hybrid, Semiclosed, Semiopen ● Voters can change their party registration when they come to vote ● Caters to the “independents” o Open primaries ▪ Have more freedom to choose which party’s primary they want to vote in ▪ Voters receive either a consolidated ballot or ballots for every party, and they select the party of their choice in the privacy of the voting booth o Blanket Primaries ▪ The names of candidates from all parties appear on a single ballot in the primary so that in contrast to an open primary, a voter can choose a Democrat for one office and a Republican for another o Top Two Primaries ▪ Like the blanket primary, all candidates names appear on the same ballot, however, the top two vote getters for each office, regardless of party, advance to the general election ● 2 democrats or 2 republicans go head to head in the general election ● Why Does Type of Primary Matter? o Closed primaries ▪ believe that citizens benefit from having clear choices in elections that can be provided by a strong, unified party ▪ reduces crossing over and raiding o Open and blanket primaries ▪ believe that rigid party loyalties can harm democracy, so candidates should be chosen by all voters, regardless of party. ● How Candidates Qualify o How do candidates get on the ballot? ▪ Filing a petition ● Sometimes they need a certain amount of signatures ● Others need to pay a small fee o Runoffs: When too many candidates get on the ballot ▪ The runoff was used to ensure a majority winner in order to present a unified face to the electorate and to ward off any challenges in the general election from blacks and other republicans ● What Parties Don’t Like About Primaries o Difficulties in recruiting candidates ▪ Majority party becomes the only viable means of exerting political influence o The risk of unappealing nominees ▪ Only about half as many voters turn out for the primary as for the general election ● Do these voters represent the rest of the population well? ▪ Sometimes voters cannot use their party identification to choose among candidates with the same party identification, so they may choose the weaker one o Divisive Primaries ▪ Activists who had campaigned for the candidate who lost the primary may sit out the general election rather than work for their party’s nominee ▪ Losing candidate may refuse to take no for an answer and then still run in the general election as an independent party o Problems in Holding Candidates Accountable ▪ When candidates are choes in primaries rather than by party leadres, the party loses a powerful means of holding its candidates and officeholders accountable for their actions ▪ Primaries have these drawbacks ● Hostile candidates ● Increased nomination spending ● Extended political campaigns ● The Party Organization Fights Back o Persuading Candidates to Run (Or Not to Run) ▪ Strong party organizations allow for their candidates opposition to be minimized o Endorsing candidates ▪ Sometimes accompanied by campaign money and organizational help ▪ Formal endorsements can often discourage other candidates or wellfunded interest groups from challenging the party’s choice in the primary o Providing tangible support ▪ Offer party money ▪ Use party activists to circulate nominating petitions ▪ Publish ads ▪ Print reminder cards ▪ Local businesses, professionals, labor groups, civic associations, ethnic, religious, and racial organizations, and other interest groups help to raise support ● Candidates and Voters in the Primaries o Many candidates run without competition ▪ Incumbency ▪ If competition is scarce, so are the voters ● The Impact of the Direct Primary o Has it made elections more democratic? ▪ Primaries in it of themselves are democratic (especially if no incumbent running for office) ● However, it is reduced by the number of unopposed candidates and the low levels of voter turnout o Because of lengthened elections, voters do not want to work or put more effort into it o How badly has it harmed parties? ▪ Primaries strain party resources ▪ When a party organization cannot choose who will carry the party label into the general election, the party has been deprived of one of its key resources ▪ Has redistributed power within the parties ▪ Party “discipline” decreases when candidates can with the partys nomination even when they defy the party organization ▪ Also contribute to the decentralization of power in the American parties Chapter 10 Choosing the Presidential Nominees ● The Invisible Primary o The process of early fundraising and jockeying for media attention and public support has become so important to the eventual result o “money primary” o Party leaders, activists, and interest groups watch the invisible primary closely ▪ Which candidates would best serve their interests o Candidates who fall behind in funding and endorsements are likely to fall out of the race o The first step is to survive this invisible primary before moving onto primaries and caucuses ▪ The aim is to win delegates ● The Adoption of Presidential Primaries o Presidential nominees used to be chosen by congressional party caucuses ▪ Election of nominees controlled by party leaders o Progressives sought a way to weaken party leaders o Turbulence in the Democratic Party ▪ McGovernFraser reform ● Reformers trying to break up concentrations of power in the party leadership ● Principle was established that the national party, not the states or the state parties, makes the rules for nomination presidential candidates o Presidential Primaries and Caucuses Today ▪ Each state decides whether to choose its delegates to the parties national conventions in a primary election or a series of caucuses ▪ A state holding a primary ● Selects a date to vote ● Determines how many state delegates will got to the party’s national convention based on the popular vote ▪ Caucuses ● 3 steps o Debate which candidate for president in meetings o Then they choose delegates to communicate their presidential preference to meetings at higher levels o The states final delegate slate for the national convention is determined at the higherlevel conventions ● The Race for Delegates: Timing and Momentum o Can create momentum by making it through the invisible primary ▪ This allows them to ● Win early states ● Receive media coverage ● Raise money more easily ● Increase possibility of victory o Front loaded ▪ Move primaries and caucuses closer to the beginning of the nomination season o Candidates Strategic Choices ▪ Democrats rules ● Proportional representation ▪ Republican rules ● Winnertakeall system ▪ A winnertakeall rule can produce very different results from a PR rule o What Is the Party’s Role ▪ State and local parties want a nominee who will bring voters to the polls to support the party’s candidates for state and local offices ▪ Superdelegates ● an unelected delegate who is free to support any candidate for the presidential nomination at the party's national convention ● are either o elected officials o party leaders ● Voters’ Choices in Presidential Nominations o Who Votes ▪ Turnout is greater with ● Bettereducated ● Traditional two party competition ● Higher competition between candidates o Are Primary Voters Typical ▪ Lower turnout than general election ▪ Unrepresentative group of citizens ▪ Better educated, wealthier, and older o Do Voter Make Informed Choices ▪ Primary voters seem to pay less attention to the campaign and to have less knowledge about the candidates ▪ Candidates personal characteristics influence voters in the primaries but issues often have only a minor impact o Do Primaries Produce Good Candidates? ▪ Primaries are more likely to give an advantage to candidates whose names are weel known to the public and those who have the support of issue activists and people with intensely held views ● The National Conventions o Once the state have chosen their delegates in primares and caucuses, the delegates go to their party’s national convention and vote for a presidential nominee o Roots of the Convention ▪ The national party convention is an old and respected institution, but it began as a power grab o What Conventions Do ▪ Formalize the Presidential Nomination ● Before the 1970’s delegates were chosen by state and local party leaders would select the party’s nominee during the national convention ● Only a single round of balloting has been necessary at the convention ▪ Approving the Vice Presidential Nominee ● The day after the presidential nominee is chosen, delegates vote again to select the vice presidential candidate ▪ Approving the Platform ● Platform o Its statement of party positions on a wide range of issues o Usually reflect the candidate's views or the bargains that the candidate has been willing to make to win support or preserve party harmony o Usually lists the policy preferences ▪ Launching the General Election Campaign ● The last thing to do for the convention is to present the party’s presidential candidate to the American public ● “Convention Bounce” ● Who Are the Delegates? o Apportioning Delegates Among the States ▪ The national parties determine how many delegates each state can send to the convention ▪ The Republicans allocate delegates more equally among the states ● This decision to represent the small states more equally with the large states has advantaged its conservative wing ▪ The Democrats weigh more heavily the size of the state’s population and its record of support for Democratic candidates ● Larger states with stronger Democratic voting traditions have favored the more liberal interests in their party o How Representative are the Delegates? ▪ White males, well educated, and the affluent have traditionally been overrepresented in conventions ▪ Demographics ● Increased women delegates ● Increased racial diversity ▪ Political Experience ● Most of a random sample of delegates reported that they had been active in their party for at least 20 years, and a majority currently hold party office ▪ Issues ● More extreme in their views and more aware of issues than most other voters are ● Very polarized by party ▪ Purists or Pragmatists ● Purists o More attracted by issues, more insistent on internal party democracy o Less willing to compromise ● Pragmatists o More likely to have a longterm commitment ot hte party and to be more willing to compromise on issues in order to win the general election ▪ Who Controls the Delegates? ● It would not matter how representative delegates are if they act as pawns of powerful party leaders ● Nobody control the delegates overall ● How Media Cover Conventions o To hold viewers, media searched the conventions for new sources of excitement, such as potential conflicts o Media searches for excitement o However, there is reduced media coverage ● Do Conventions Still have a purpose o Conventions ratify results o Nomination reforms have made issues all the more important in conventional politics o The provide an occasion for rediscovering common interests and for celebrating the party’s heroes? ● Should We Reform the Reforms? o McGovernFraser reforms o By the time most voters know enough about the candidates to make an informed choice, the nominees have already been chosen o What Could Be Done? ▪ Schedule primaries all on the same day? ▪ “Super Tuesdays” Chapter 11 The General Election ● Party Centered ○ Party leaders planned and managed candidates’ campaigns with the party’s interests in mind ● Candidate Centered ○ Directed by the candidates and their staffs and consultants rather than by the party organizations and focusing on the candidate’s needs, not the party’s. ● Campaign Strategy ○ Campaigning in a primary elections focuses mainly on party voters ○ General election audience is much larger, more diverse, and can observe the candidates for a longer time ○ The G.E. campaign is also powerfully affected by whether the candidate's party is in the majority or the minority in that district ○ One of the best ways to win offices is incumbency ■ Have a good name/recognizable name ■ Attracts more media ■ Access to power ■ Easier to raise campaign money ■ Usually part of the majority party in the district ○ Challengers ■ Don’t start with ● Experienced organization ● Fundraising skills ● Media attention ● Recognizable name ■ Can raise issues ● How Campaigning has Changed ○ Sources of Information ■ Polls and Big databases ● Public opinon polls ● Social media ● Voting records ■ Computers ● Databases are mined for patterns ● Opposition researchers can locate statements made by the opposing candidate ● Social media marketing campaigns can be analyzed ○ Professional Consultants ■ Buy media time ■ Design web pages ■ Canvass ■ Directmail fundraising ■ Only one party ● Methods of Persuasion: The Air War ○ Television ■ Can be used to appeal to certain audience/voters based on when ads are aired ■ Cable TV ● Cost effective ● Works well in local campaigns ● Narrowcasting ○ transmit a television program, especially by cable, or otherwise disseminate information, to a comparatively small audience defined by special interest or geographical location ■ Free media ● A.k.a. Earned media ● Media coverage that is on the news rather than used as advertising ■ Due to other media options available, the poltiical information these news avoiders receive comes from campaign ads and entertainment programming ○ The Internet ■ Campaigns can reach their supporters directly on the Internet ● Asks voters to register ■ Longer ads online (Youtube) can get messages distributed for cheaper ■ Popups ■ Party’s can use the internet and search terms the brought the best results ■ Broadcast media ● Efficient way to reach larger people ● However, they can’t narrow down on specific groups of people they want to “win over” ○ Direct Contact by Mail, Twitter, Text ■ Direct Mail ● Can be highly emotional and inflammatory ■ Email ● Online fund raising ○ Has become central to most federal campaigns and many state and local candidates as well ■ Text messaging ● Send reminders to vote ● Quick donate ■ Social Networking Sites (“Socnets”) ● Little or no costs ● Already existing and widely used ■ Twitter ● The Ground Ear: “Under the Radar” ○ Ground war ■ Housetohouse canvassing and phone calls that permit communication with selected groups of people ○ Canvassing and Phone Banks ■ Canvassing ● To talk to the people in a specific area in order to gain support ○ Microtargeting ■ Voter Vault ● National Republican database ■ Microtargeting ● LOOK UP IN OTHER TEXTBOOK ■ Phone bank ● Bring supporters to a central location with telephones ● Dial lists of numbers identified by the campaing’s microtargeting ■ Robocalls ● Volunteers or computers can direct automated phone calls to large numbers of people on a campaign’s target list ■ Push polling ● Attack messages disguised as public opinion polls ○ Negative Campaigning ■ News media cover negative ads more than positive ads ● They work ● Putting These Tools to Work ○ 72 Hour Project ■ Republicans flood precincts in competitive states with Rep. volunteers and paid staffers, especially during the last 72 hours of the campaign ● Do Campaigns Make a Difference ○ The Argument that Campaigns Matter ■ Research suggests that canvassing has a small but potential meaningful effect on both turnout and voters choices ■ Doortodoor canvassing has been found to be more effective in activiating voters than phone contact is ■ Both kinds of contact are more effective than mailings ■ Canvassing makes a bigger difference in local elections ○ The Argument that they dont ■ The inconsistency of messages makes it harder for a campaign to have single, consistent impact on viewers’ minds ■ Voters selective attention to media and other campaign communications ■ Voters’ tendency to pay attention to the messages with which they already agree and their ability to tune out most political messages altogether ● The Continuing Struggle Between Candidates and Party Organizations ○ The party ■ Aims to maximze the number of races it wins, puts its scarce resources into the most competitive campaigns and spends as little as possible on the races it considers hopeless ■ Likely to do whatever it takes ● Negative or positive campaigning ○ The candidate ■ Committed to his or her own victory and to gaining the resources needed to achieve it, no matter how unlikely that victory may be ■ Has to face voters Chapter 12 Financing Campaigns ● How much money is spent on campaigns o In 2012, for all levels of office in the U.S. cost over $7 billion o Presidential Campaigns ▪ 2012 was the most expensive ▪ Campaign spending has gone up for many reasons ● More skilled at recruiting from small and big donors ● Polarization ● Unlimited funds from nonparty groups ▪ 4 ways presidential races use money ● Coordinated spending o Money spent by party organizations in coordination with a candidate’s campaign to purchase services such as media advertising or polling for the campaign ● Independent spending o Can spend as much as they choose independently to expressly support or oppose a candidate, as long as they do so without consulting their candidate ● Hybrid ads o Mention both the candidate and a generic party message ● Mobilize voters through grassroots efforts o Congressional Campaigns ▪ Incumbents greatly outdo their challengers in fundraising and spending in every election year ▪ Republican candidates usually hold a fundraising edge over Democrats in congressional campaigns o State and Local Campaigns ▪ Much less is known about spending practices in the thousands of campaigns for state and local offices, mainly because there is no central reporting agency comparable to the national Federal Election Commission (FEC). ▪ Local candidates can spend a few hundred dollars and win ▪ Some spend millions ▪ Governor campaigns often cost at least as much as races for the U.S. Senate o What is the impact of campaign spending ▪ Reach voters with messages ▪ Buying early visibility ▪ The more challengers can spend when they run against incumbents, the better are their chances for victory ▪ Incumbents spend when they have a strong challenge ● How does money flow into campaigns o 2 different ways ▪ First, individuals and groups can give money to a candidates campaigns ● the campaign then decides how to spend the money it receives ▪ Secondly, groups and individuals can spend money on campaign communications and activities, usually independent of the campaign ● it is the individuals or groups, not the campaign, which choose how to spend the money o Individuals, party organizations, and PACs (other than super PACs) can use both methods to put money into campaigns o Other nonparty groups – Super PACs, 501(c)s, and 527s – can spend their money only on campaign communications; they are not allowed to give money directly to candidates o Giving money to Candidates Campaigns ▪ 5 sources ● Individual o Most money contributed from individuals o Federal Elections Campaign Act (FECA) ▪ Limited an individual’s donation to any federal candidate to $1,000 ● Political action committees (PACs) o Political groups, other than party organizations, whose purpose is to raise and spend money to influence elections o Most PACs have been created by corporations, labor unions, or trade associations o Corporations and unions are currently allowed to give money directly to federal candidates only through a traditional PAC o Nonconnected PAC ▪ Ideological groups ▪ No sponsoring organizations o Super PACs ▪ PACs that can collect unlimited amounts of donations as a consequence of a recent Supreme Court decision, Citizens United v. FEC ▪ Are required to disclose their donors ▪ o Leadership PACs ▪ Those set up by incumbents to distribute money to other incumbents or challengers in their party o Most PAC money is intended to gain access for the giver ▪ The assurance that the legislators door will be open when the group hopes to plead its case on legislation o Most PAC contributions go to incumbents ● Political parties (including the party in government) o Parties are allowed to make small donations directly to the House (up to $5000) and the Senate ($45,500) ● The candidates own resources ● Public (taxpayers’) funds ● Reform of the Campaign Finance Rules o Contribution Limits ▪ Hard (or federal) money ● Funds raised and psent in accordance with the FECA’s rules o Public Disclosure ▪ FECA required that congressional and presidential candidates publicly disclose their spending and the names, addresses, and occupations of all contributors o Public Funding of Presidential Campaigns o Spending Limits ▪ Candidates for president who accept public funding must also accept spending limits ● The Loopholes that Ate the Reforms o Independent Spending ▪ Ads that are run independent of a candidates campaign o Soft Money ▪ Unlimited fundraising and amounts of money that can be spent on party building and voter mobilization activities o Issue Advocacy Ads ▪ Any political advertising that did not include the terms “elect,” “vote for,” “support,” “oppose,” or similar terms ● As long as these political ads did not say these words, then courts held that the ad was not a campaign ad because it did not expressly advocate electing a candidate o 1970 Reforms accomplishments ▪ Intended and unintended effects ● Slowed the growth of campaign spending ● Made small donors more valuable to candidates ● Opened much of the campaign finance process to public scrutiny ● Failed to reduce the influence of “interested money” ▪ Effects on the parties ● Public funding went directly to the candidates themselves, not to the parties o Created more distance between the party organization and the presidential campaign o The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) ▪ Banned softmoney contributions to national parties ▪ State and local parties can still accept money from individuals, corporations, and labor unions ▪ Electioneering communication ● A broadcast, cable, or satellite communication that mentioned a candidate within 60 days of a general election or 30 days of a primary, and prohibited such expenditures by corporations and unions o 527s and 501(c)s ▪ 527 ● The provision #527 of the U.S. tax code, allowing certain taxexempt groups to accept unlimited contributions and spend without limit on election advocacy, as long as they do not expressly call for the election or defeat of specific candidates and do not coordinate their activated with federal candidates or parties ▪ 501(c)s ● as long as federal campaign activity is not their “major purpose,” they do not have to disclose the names of their donors publicly o Bundling ▪ An individual or group can solicit large numbers of these individual donors, combine (“bundle”) their contributions, deliver them to a campaign, and take credit for much more substantial contribution ● Citizens United o Will Super PACs replace the parties? ▪ Super PACs can fund their independent spending by accepting unlimited contributions from corporations, unions, and individuals ● Parties can’t because of the BCRA