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GSC 199 notes Unit 1

by: Sydney Hunt

GSC 199 notes Unit 1 GSC 199

Marketplace > Murray State University > Science > GSC 199 > GSC 199 notes Unit 1
Sydney Hunt
GPA 3.48

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notes discussed in class whats highlighted was useful for quizzes, all was on the test Introduction to Earth Science
Earth Science
Dr. Kipphut
Class Notes
EARTH, Science
25 ?




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Hunt on Wednesday May 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GSC 199 at Murray State University taught by Dr. Kipphut in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Earth Science in Science at Murray State University.


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Date Created: 05/11/16
Unit 1 (Many) Hypothesis: an untested idea or explanation (tentative) (Some) (Difference between hypothesis and theory is that theories have been extensively tested) Theory: a hypothesis that has survived repeated testing and comparison to alternative  hypotheses.  (Very Few) Law: a scientific characteristic or behavior for which there are few known  exceptions  Paradigm: an example serving as a model Conceptual frameworks for the various scientific disciplines,  Paradigms usually encompass one or more theories,  Guiding compasses for coordinating research and through within the various scientific  disciplines  The “Big Concept”  The “Big Bang” (astronomy)  “Plate Tectonics” (geology)  “Evolution” (biology)  Since these are theories they may not stand the test of time Scientific Method, 4 steps or elements 1. Collection of data through observation 2. Development of a hypothesis 3. Development of experiments to test hypothesis 4. Accept, modify, or reject hypothesis  Testing is the heart of all experiments  (almost) everything you need to know about Earth Science and the universe o Radiation o Gravity Astronomy: Earths Place in the Universe (One) Universe: the totality of all matter and radiation on the cast reaches of space observable by an astronomer  (Billions) Galaxy: the basic unit of matter in the universe, groupings of stars and clouds of gas (Billions and billions) Star: the basic unit of matter within galaxies, generate heat and light by  nuclear reactions in their interiors (Unknown) Planets: an object that orbits a star, isn’t massive enough to generate nuclear  reactions What did the ancient people know? Most of our knowledge of ancient astronomy has been passed down from the Greeks Greeks could see: Sun Moon Stars 5 Planets Aristotle: deducted that the earth was a sphere by the curved shadow it casts on the moon Eratosthenes: accurately estimates the circumference of the Earth Aristarchus: contrary to his contemporaries, believed that the Sun was the center of the universe Hipparchus: determined the location and brightness of approximately 800 stars, accurately  estimated lengths of time from astronomical motions What did people deduce from observations? The earth was round Correctly estimate circumference of Earth Regular patterns of motion of the Sun, moon, and stars Earth revolved around the Sun “Geocentric” or Ptolemaic Theory of the Earths place in the universe Earth was the center of the universe Earth was round Earth didn’t rotate The movements of astronomical bodies were a basis for a calendar The 16  century was the beginning of a great scientific revolution  The birth of modern astronomy led to a 200 year period of incredible advances in human  understanding of physics, math, chemistry, and geology Copernicus believed that the Sun was the center of the motion for the universe  Earth rotated  Heliocentric (helio=Sun)  Orbits of the planets were not circular (elliptical)  Heliocentric of Copernican   Geocentric=Ptolemaic (Earth centered)  Heliocentric=Copernican (Sun centered) Copernicus waited till after his death to publish “Our Heavenly Spheres” due to its conflicting  views of the Catholic Church Tycho “Brahe” Born 3 years after Copernicus’s death Didn’t believe the Sun was the center of the universe Collected the most exact astronomical data to date in an attempt to prove the geocentric views of  the universe Hired Johannes Kepler as his assistant Johannes Kepler Used Tychos accurate data Derived 3 laws of planetary motion Discovered that the planets moved in an elliptical motion, not circular Strong confirmation of Copernicus’s Sun­centered universe Galileo Galilei Contemporary to Kepler First to use a telescope to study the universe Discovered Venus had “phases” Discovered 4 satellites orbiting Jupiter Made first detailed studies of the moon and the Sun First real understanding of motion called inertia Within a few decades of Galileo’s death, the theories of Copernicus and Galileo were accepted  by almost all of the western world. Isaac Newton Law of universal gravitation  Everybody in the universe attracts every other body in the universe with a force that is  proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance  between them o Force= G(mass)/distance Greater mass=stronger gravitational attraction Greater distance=weaker gravitational attraction Laws of Motion A body at rest tends to stay at rest unless acted upon by a force (inertia) A body in motion tends to stay in motion and will travel in a straight line unless acted upon by a  force (momentum)  For every force, there is an equal and opposing force The Earths elliptical orbit around the Sun results from a balance between:  The Earth’s momentum (which tends to carry the Earth away from the Sun)  The Sun’s gravitational force on the Earth (which tends to pull the Earth towards the Sun) Radiation: the transmission of energy through space in waves   Property of all matter o Visible light o Infra­red o Ultraviolet Spectroscopy o X­rays o Microwaves o Radiowaves Radiation is transmitted in waves, different types of radiation can be distinguished by their  wavelengths  All matter emits or gives off radiation  Shorter wavelengths carry more energy than longer wavelengths What can be learned about stars and galaxies from spectroscopy? Temperature Velocity, speed and direction of motion Distance, how far away What they are made of Mass Temperature We can learn about the temperature of stars and galaxies based on their color  Red (longer wavelength)=cooler  Blue (shorter wavelength)=hotter   The yellow color of the sun tells us its surface temperature is about 5500 C­6000 C Velocity, speed and direction of motion The Doppler Effect (motion may affect wavelength)  If an object is moving away from the observer, the wavelength of its radiation will be  stretched or lengthened (called a red­shift)   If an object is moving towards the observer, the wavelength of its radiation will be  compressed or shortened (called a blue­shift) When Edwin Hubble and his students first applied this method to determine the motion of stars,  they come to an unexpected and science­changing conclusion  Nearly all stars seem to be moving away from Earth Distance  Steller Parallax: apparent magnitude  As distance increases, parallax decreases  As distance decreases, parallax increases  As the distance to a star increases, the measurement becomes more and more difficult (323 light years/1900 trillion miles away the “North Star”) What are stars made of?   “dark” lines: are caused by the absorption of selected wavelengths by the gases that make up stars  Each chemical element has a “spectral” dark line What have astronomers found from these studies?  Stars are made almost exclusively of hydrogen and  helium    How and when did the universe begin?  The Big Bang theory       Cosmology: the study of the origin and general structure of the universe o Astronomers tell us that the universe as we know it began about 15 million years  ago with an explosion called the Big Bang. All matter in the universe still rides  fourth on the wings of this cosmic blast. Speculations as to the nature of this  cosmic events constitute the forefront of a field called cosmology. The Big Bang Theory   The Big Bang marks the inception of the universe o Occurred about 14 million years ago o All matter in space was crated  Mater is moving outward  Universe is “expanding”  The Big Bang Theory predicts that the early universe was a very hot place and that as it  expands, the gas within cools. Thus the universe should be filled with radiation that is  literally the remnant heat left over from the Big Bang called the “cosmic microwave  background radiation” of CBR Known about the Sun


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