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HIST 150 Week 13 Notes: 4/18- 4/22

by: Whitney Kendall

HIST 150 Week 13 Notes: 4/18- 4/22 Hist 150-002

Marketplace > Colorado State University > History > Hist 150-002 > HIST 150 Week 13 Notes 4 18 4 22
Whitney Kendall

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About this Document

Covering the Nullification Crisis to Social Reform Movements.
U.S. History to 1876
Tracy L Brady
Class Notes
hist150, history, Reform, social, movements
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Kendall on Wednesday May 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 150-002 at Colorado State University taught by Tracy L Brady in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see U.S. History to 1876 in History at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 05/11/16
4/18/16 Nullification Crisis  Tariff of 1828- “Tariff of Abominations”  South Displeased  Doctrine Nullification o States have the right to enforce/ void a law o John C Calhoun resigns from VP, is replaced by Martin Van Buren  Controversy stirring around o Crisis of 1832  Tariff of 1832 o “ordinance of Nullification” o Voided and refused by South Carolina o Jackson uses force  Tariff of 1833 Bank War  Nicholas Biddle o Director  State bank regulations o Loans can be paid in hard currency Panic of 1837  Economic crisis  People start to turn on him  Whigs party o Hating Jackson 4/20/16 Wigs and Democrats  Differences in class and values Democrats  Liked Jefferson’s ideal yeoman independent farmer  Against privilege and Elite- for the ordinary people  Different ethnicities, lots of Irish immigrants and first generation Americans  Individualism, against government interference, don’t like tariffs, don’t like the bank, nor the big changes to commercial farming and industrialization  Conservative values Whigs  More receptive to change  With Andrew Jackson  Usually wealthier than the democrats  Transcendentalism- idea of perfectibility of humans  Liked a strong federal government especially for economic assistance and protecting American industry, they like tariffs on imported goods,  More reform- minded  Educational reform, temperance movement, abolitionist movement and anti- slavery  Upper mid-west, but there are some southern Wigs o Southern men looking to expand south economy Election of 1840  William Henry Harrison o Whigs candidate, chose him over William Clay o He’s already famous, aging war hero o John Tyler is VP candidate o Portrayed as an ordinary guy, he doesn’t need luxuries  Martin Van Buren o Democrat candidate o Things used against him in his campaign: Doesn’t understand real people, he liked nice clothes, was kind of a sexual deviant or pervert, had people mow boobs into his grass  Kept a harem of slave women at his disposal  All these things kept him from being elected o Also people are angry at the last democrat for putting them into a recession  Large victory for Harrison  80% voter turn out  Contracted pneumonia and died 1 month into his presidency  John Tyler became a Whig because he didn’t like Jackson and how he ignored other branches of government o Veto’s lots of tariffs and creation of banks o Is kicked out of office by angry Whigs Santa Fe Trade  Mexico starts to welcome Americans to Santa Fe once they won their independence from Spain  Trail cuts through Kansas, Texas, and New Mexico. Very arid trail  Native Americans were very in control of this area o The Comanche and Apache Indians harassed their wagon trains. Comanche was at the peak of their power  Government starts to fund this trip, build forts to help support travelers  William Becknell- First American to take goods to Santa Fe o 1000% profit on his goods  Traders went as far as Mexico City  Traders started making relationships with the Mexicans, people start marrying their daughters off to the Mexicans o New Mexico is starting to feel a stronger relationship with America, no longer feeling neglected by Mexico Texas  Americans were invited to Texas by the Mexican Government  Small population, Native Americans had control  Mexico wanted Americans to settle there to provide a buffer between them and the Native Americans. Also wanted to protect silver mining  Stephen Austin brings Americans to settle on a $15,000 land grant on a few terms o Those who moved must become Mexican citizens and must become Catholics  Texas had great cotton land o Americans got involved in ranching, but mostly got into cotton  Tejanos- Mexican Texas o Some intermarriage, but mostly Americans lived in self-contained societies and never intended to actually become citizens and Catholics  In 1830 the centrists take over Mexico City, they want central control. o They want to make Americans abide by the terms they agreed to, wanted to outlaw slavery and give them taxes.  Fall of 1835- War between Texans and Tejanos against Mexican Government o Seize San Antonio and another, thought they won o General Santa Anna (Also President) come back and the Battle of the Alamo happens, tried to get Americans and Tejanos to surrender to Anglo Texans.  Juan Seguín- fighting with Tejanos, sent to go get reinforcements to defend the Alamo  Many people died at the Alamo  April of 1836 o General Sam Houston and other forces defeat Santa Anna at the Battle of Jacinto o He is forced to sign a treaty to give Texas its independence and define the border as the Rio Grande River. Mexico doesn’t recognize this  Texas applies for statehood in 1836, but they can’t because it’s Jackson’s last year and he has lots of problems already. Also if Texas is admitted, then it’ll give the slave states an advantage, so he says no  Texas becomes its own Republic o Sam Houston is president, Lorenzo de Zavala is Vice President o Americans discriminate against Tejanos, and thought if someone is Mexican or of Mexican heritage they are the enemy o White Vigilantes make people flew including Juan Seguín.  Henry Clay is candidate for Whigs, Democrats have James K. Polk o Democrats start using manifest destiny, calls to re-annex Texas, it’s their destiny to control all over. If you elect me I will get us up to Canada and Oregon area  Wins with expansion campaign th th o In 1845 Texas is the 28 state and the 14 slave state- The Free State was Michigan?  Mexico is mad 4/22/16  Campaign says America will gain Oregon territory above the 49 parallel up to Alaska. We don’t actually because we aren’t going to go to war to get that small piece of land Social Reform Movements- *Potential essay question about commonalities***  Commonalities between movements include: o Transcendentalist Movement  Humans can transcend their negative qualities, and that god is present in everyone- believe in perfecting humans o 2 ndGreat Awakening  Inspires movements and the same tactics echo into the reform movements  They don’t need someone telling them how to praise god, they have the power to enact change o Middle Class Movements  Sets agenda for what needs to be addressed and fixed  Notions of morality and ideals of behavior o Small local individual efforts are not enough  Problems require institutional reform  Might even need to pass laws to fix it o Belief in Basic goodness of human beings  Related to transcendentalism  Their environment or lack of education is what is causing bad, the people are not bad o Dogmatic  Just as much about social control as social justice  Reformers think they know what’s wrong with society and with you and they are going to fix you because they know what’s best  Temperance Movement o Concern with consumption of alcohol- it’s hurting our society o The American Temperance Society is one of the largest reform organizations in the US, over 200,000 members. Dominated with people from 2 ndGreat Awakening  Trying to save people from alcohol- make it like a conversion, talk about the evils of alcohol. Emotional  Men pledge to be non-drinkers  Women are very involved o Alcohol had been accompanied with everything: buying things, social gatherings… o People supported it because of the effect of alcoholism  Financial issues, domestic violence, no way out of marriage, class and ethnicity issue  Upper class didn’t think the working class was capable of handling alcohol. Also looked down on the drinking th cultures such as the Irish and the Italian immigrants o 1919- 18 amendment: prohibition of alcohol  Anti-Prostitution Movement o Going to save prostitutes from their sinful lives, and will be converted to living well nd  Similar to 2 Great Awakening o Not very successful. Most women are not fallen women who are unmoral, they are poor women and turn to prostitution to survive o Praying for them doesn’t really help st o Female Moral Reform Society- 1 people to recognize the economic routes of prostitution  Want to make a support system for widows, poor young women, and those who are not making enough in small jobs  Prostitution isn’t just about the prostitutes, they think what about the guys? The collect data about the men who pay for it and are being published in the newspaper- men don’t want to be caught  What about the men? Prostitutes are the only ones being arrested. They helped pass laws to make it illegal and have legal consequences  Dorothea Dix o Reforms the conditions for the mentally ill and how they were treated by other people. Many were just thrown into jail, chained up, beaten and raped o She testified to the Massachusetts Legislature and she lobbied to have these people placed into “insane asylums” o Didn’t help getting treated, but they’re lives were improved with better conditions o 1 time mental illness is something that needs attention, it’s not something to be condemned for o She also led Prison Reforms. Believed they can fix the criminals. It’s not just about incarceration, but it’s about rehabilitation too  Auburn prison and others are built to help reform criminals  Tried to do solitary confinement for everyone- experiments: was very bad and many people broke down and committed suicide o People start realized that social problems are a lot more complex than a simple solution  Abolitionist Movement o The American Colonization Society in 1817: Idea that there will be very gradual emancipation to slaves with economic compensation to owners and then eventually ship Free African Americans back to Africa o People didn’t want their former slaves to be their neighbors o Very Ineffective. Only a few thousand slaves are emancipated by 1830 and were sent to Liberia  African Americans aren’t happy, they are American, they were born there o African American Abolitionist  Dstand for immediate emancipation and to be treated equally  1 African American newspapers appear  The Underground Railroad: a network of people (freeman mostly) who helped get slaves out of the south and safely get them to the north and establish themselves as freeman


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