chapter 6 PSYC_3150_10
Popular in Psychology of Sex Differences
Popular in Psychlogy
This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriela Saint-Louis on Friday March 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC_3150_10 at George Washington University taught by Forssell in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 230 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Sex Differences in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
Reviews for chapter 6
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/20/15
8Chapter 6 Sexual Response SEXUAL RESPONSE William Masters and Virginia Johnson 0 observed masturbation o categorized erotic response into four stages the Human sexual response cycle HSRC excitement o the beginning of physical sexual esponse plateau 0 when erotic arousal intensi es orgasm o the intensely pleasurable climax of sexual excitement resolution 0 when the sexual tension dissipates and arousal reduces o incude mental state of quotdesire though not included in HSRC Desire 0 when a person ants sexual stimulation or intimacy he or she is feeling desire can last for a eeting moment or persist for a lifetime Desire is harder to de ne than other stags of sexual arousal because it exists in the mind rather than the body 0 types of desire proceptivity best described as lust or libido it is automatic intense hormonedriven and independent of the situation related more to male sexual desire arousability a person39s capacity to become aroused once certain triggers cues or situations are encounteredmay best describe female sexual desire especially in women desire and physical arousal are not always connected 0 when it comes to sexual arousal men39s minds re more in synch with what their bodie are doing than women39s are Excitement the rst phase of Masters and johnson s sexual response cycle it is the bodys initial response to feelings of sexual desire can last anywhere from a few minutes to several hours 0 can occur without any noticeable sexual stimulation Blood rushes to the vessels f the genitalia vaocongestion which enlarges and deepen in color sex ush a rashlike reddening of the skin of the upper abdomen and chest caused by dilating capillaries EXCITEMENT IN WOMEN shaft of the clitoris increases in size and becomes erect though not as fir as an erect penis labia majora spread and separate and the labia minora increase in size and darken in color uterus lifts and enlarges and the size and shape of the vagina changes the upper twothirds of the vagina gets both wider and longer while the outer onethird narrows allowing it to better grip the penis the vaginal will lubricate as uid EXCITEMENT IN MEN blood rushes into the genital tissues causing an erection Penis becomes stiff hard and larger in length and diameter the angle of the penis changes urethral opening in the glans widens scrotal skin thickens and constricts and the testes elevate and enlarge most men nipples become erect erection is controlled by autonomic processes Autonomic nervous system ANS o sympathetic nervous system controls quotfight or ightquot responses mobilizes body to act in case of emergency 0 parasympathetic nervous system responses are medited diminishes an erection non sexual related erections 0 both penis and clitoris become errect during REM sleep though more observed in men 0 quotmorning woodquot secondary phenomenon of REM sleep and we usually wake up directly from REM which happens at the end of cycle Plateau during ths phase sexual arousal grows as a precursor to orgasm changes form excitement continue 0 increased heart rate respiratory rate blood pressure and muscle tension lasts anywhere from a few seconds to a few minutes WOMEN O MEN Orgasm derives from Greek word quotorgasmosquot meaning excitement or selling consideref one of the most pleasurable physical events humans can experience typically lasts less than a minute in both males and females characterized by a feeling of euphoria along with a sseies of rhythmic contractions of the genital region During orgasm brain areas related to reward are activated while the amygdala the seat of fear and rage shuts down orgasmic platform the lower third of the vagina sells as it engorges with blood coronal ridge and glans of the penis increase in size and deepen in color during the plateau prostate gland enlarges and the testes elevate and rotate slightly so they lie closer to the groin WOMEN 0 strong muscular contractions of the vagina uterus and anus between three and fteen of these rhythmic contractions which occur at 08second intervals some women may expel a small amount of the uid from the prostatelike skene39s glands multiple orgasms occurs when a person as an orgasm and then goes on to have one or more additional orgasms within a short period before the body returns to a preplateau level of excitement for most women the ability to orgasm depends on many variables including physical psychological and societal factors Freud and idea of two female orgasms quotimmaturequot orgasm obtained through clitoral stimulation quotmaturequot vaginal orgams chieved through intercourse 0 Irving Singer proosed three types of female orgasm vuva uterine and blended 0 MEN 0 two stages emission seminal uids move into the upper urethra giving men a feeling of ejaculatory ineveitality the sense that an orgasm is coming and cant be prevented ejaculation the ejection of sperm frm penis usually accompanied by orgasm but can occur independently retrograde ejaculation 0 some or all of the semen goes into the bladder o uncommon can occur in men with diabetes after prostate surgery or with use of some drugs 0 semen does not hurt bladder and is eliminated with urine on average 26 millimeters of uid is ejaculated and the ejaculate can be expelled up to 2 feet unlike women most men experience a refractory period after orgasm o a period of time during which they are physiologically incapable of having another orgasm or ejaculation 0 can last for a few minutes to more than 24 hours quotBlue ballsquot an in ammation of the testicles and epididymis that can occur ifaman is sexually excited with no ejaculation epididymorchitis 0 during sexual excitation bood collects in the testicles which can produce an ache and a bluish tinge in the skin of the scrotum doesn39t last long and will not cause permanent damage Female orgasms vs Male orgasms O O O O Males 0 females don39t have a refractory period and are more likely to have multiple orgasms can have extended orgasms which last for a long time discontinuation of stimulation in the middle f a female orgas the orgasm ends have more contractions and a wider area of tissue undergoes contractions quotpoint of no returnquot once a man39s orgasm begins it will continue automatically even if stimulus stops Faking Orgasms O O O Resolution 0 reasons feeling too tired or distracted to enjoy se and feel faking orgasm will end it sooner images from the media feed into some people39s unrealistically high expectations for sex be polite to partners to encourage their quothard workquot body returns t its nonexcited state Heart rate blood pressure and respiratory rate rst dip below normal then return to their normal prearoused levels cause sleep loss of muscle tension and a feeling of relaxation Release of prolactin and other substances during orgasm may even Other Models of Sexual Response Triphasic Model Helen Singer Kaplan39s model of sexual response that includes desire excitement and orgasm pateau is redundant Erotic Stimulus pathwav theorv Focuses less on the physical changes and more on the psychosocial aspects of sexual response includes 4 stages seduction includes all the actions that enhance attractiveness sensation such as sound ouch and smell affect our arousal how we interpret these sensations is in uence by our past experiences surrender psychically we surrender to orgasm because its necessary to give up control and take our mind off our performance in order to experience it re ection Re ection on the sexual experience will affect our future sexual patterns BrashOMcGreer circular model for female sexual response suggests that as a woman re ects on a satisfying sexual experience it can increase her desire leading to the seduction phase of the next sexual expenence Sexual response Across the Life Span sexuality is expressed in different waysat different points in life depending on a biological psychological societal and cultural in uences Children adolescents and teenagers male infants get erections and the vaginas of female infants lubricate infants as young as 5 months can have orgasms and children may masturbate at a very young age a young child39s hpothalamus is very active secreting a burst of GnRH every90 minutes this stops at about age 4 at about age 10 the adrenal glands release a bit of sex hormones sexual fantasies and masturbation often begin around this age 0 by age 12 he ulse generator in the hypothalamus has been turned back on and steroid hormones are again released leading to puberty Adults over 50 sexual arousal cycle slows down stages may take longer to achieve and may be less intense women 0 increased sexual response in midlife due to freedom from the fears of pregnancy satisfaction in their relationships or improved selfesteem 0 decrease in sexual response and activity as a result of the hormonal changes associated with menopause metabolic rate slows body fat percentage increases and the distribution of fat changes settling more around eh abdomen 0 more realistic in their body image 0 more satisfying sex lives than men in their 305 adjusted to what they want out of life less concerned with career stress and more con dent and comfortable in who why are AdinoElderIV culture doesn39t usually acknowledge the sexuality of older adults media images of sexually active older adults are few and far between and are often viewed with humor or even disgust Effect of Disease or injury on sexual response Cardiovascular Disease affects more than 70 million Americans 0 may impair sexual functioning reduced blood flow associated with heart disease can hinder blood ow to the genitalia resulting in dif culties with erection and lubrication Diabetes 0 most diabetics have impaired blood flow andor some degree of nerve damage two factors that underlie erectile dysfunction and problems with vaginal lubrication in addition the high blood glucose predisposes diabetic women to yeast infection treatment of conditions can impair sexual functioning painrelieving narcotics reduce a person39s orgasmic potential and many antidepressants reduce sexual desire and functioning Psychological Control of Sexual Arousal spectatoring mentally stepping outside of oneself during sexual activity with a partner and monitoring the experience Masters external factors may affect sexual arousal a partner39s excitement or lack thereof emotions feelings of guilt or regret or thoughts of past negative sexual experience may slow or prevent a person from responding to a sexual s ua onO sexual response is also affected by physical concerns 0 men are more likely to have concerns regarding sexual performance whereas women are more likely to be anxious about their body usually its appearance or odor physiological Factors that control sexual response Central Nervous Svstem many areas of the CNS the brain and spinal cord play an essential role in sexual response nerves of the spinal cord carry important signals to and from the genitals and the brain the brain39s cerebral cortex processes thoughts memories and fantasies receives sensory signals and sends out voluntary motor responses the temporal lobe of the cortex which contains the amygdala and the hypothalamus is particularly important for sexual response the hypothalamus is vital for sexual arousal and functioning in addition to controlling hormone release biological rhythms and sex drive the hypothalamus regulates emotions and the behaviors that accompany them many neurotransmitters in uence sexual functioning dopamine may facilitate sexual arousal Neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin may inhibit sexual activity Hormonal Control of Sexual Resoonse estrogen39srole in sexual arousal is unclear Women need certain level of estrogen for vaginal lubrication and blood ow to the genitalia women feel sexier and irt more in the days before ovulation when estrogen levels are highest 0 women are more likely to have sex during their most fertile days ovulation and the ve days preceding ovulation Testosterne necessary for normal sexual functioning in males Menwho have hypogonadism produce abnormally low levels of testosterone and generally experience less sexual desire and activity Castration use of surgical or chemical technique whereby a biological male loses use of the testes thus drastically reducing his testosterone levels 0 Although testosterone is involved in the sex drive it does not appear that taking more testosterone will heighten a person39s sex drive 0 also important in women39s sexual functioning sexual drive decrease of androgen levels in women result in a diminished sex drive Senses Touch Skin is the largest organ in the body the sense of touch most directly affects our response to sexual stimuli Touch is necessary for more than sexual arousal it is necessary for life itself 0 When young animals are given food and water but deprived of physical contact they develop abnormal cognitive and behavioral functions as adu s Erogenous zones areas of the body that are particularly sensitive to touch and that lead to sexual arousal when stimulated primary erogenous zones very sensitive areas with many nerve endings most are located around body openings such as the genitals mouth ear and anus but also include the breast and ngers secondary erogenous zones become sensitized through experience and are speci c for each person ex for one person a partners stroke at the back of the knee may cause sexual arousal for another the same behavior may arouse nothing more than giggles Vision vision is second only to touch in its importantce for sexual arousal both men and women can be sexually aroused by visual cutes such as an attractive person or erotic artwork which produce a strong response in the brain which occur even before the brain is able to classify the content of a picture men report more sexual arousal when viewing visual erotia men and women showed similar brain activity upon viewing visual erotica except men had more activity in their hypothalamus sexual partners often have strong preferences in relation to what substances they will allow to come in contact with their mouths preferences depend not only for the speci c secretion but on the state of arousal Hea ng sounds have the potential to both enhance and lessen a person39s sexual arousal a partner39s sounds of delight may heighten the erotic potential of an encounter whereas the sounds of a roommate39s conversation in the next room may sti e the mood Olfaction amp Pheromones smell was probably the rst sense to develop and more primitive species depend on this sense to nd food detect danger and sniff out mates signals from the olfactory system in humans travel directly to the limbic system an area of the brain containing structures that are involved in motivation memory and emotional response In Humans the effect of smell is subconscious and subtle body odor can signal physical and immunological health and as such can be important component in mate selection Cahill 1997 whereas men primarily consider a woman39s appearance women rank a man39s body odor as the most important characteristic I choosing a sexual partner 0 Some nd the odor of genital secretions to be very sexually arousing others are turned off by the smell 0 Men can smell when women are at the most fertile times of their cycle t shit experiment men rated the smell of the tshirts worn by women in their fertile phase as more pleasant and sexier human pheromones may play a role in attraction and arousal mood reproductive cles and other forms of subconscious sexual communication Pheromones colorless odorless airborne chemical signals given off by the body which are thought to affect behavior in animals whether they also affect human behavior is a controversial question some pheromones may decease libido recent study found that when a woman cries her tears contain a pheromone that may reduce a man39s sexual arousal unclear whether human pheromones act by means of the vomeronasal organ VNO the organ in other species that perceives pheromones or through the olfactory epithelium SEXUAL PROBLEMS ampTREATMENTS Sexual Desire Disorders Hypoactive sexual desire HSD the persistent or recurrent absence of sexual thoughts fantasies desire for or initiation of sexual activity either alone or with a partner thought to be the most common sexual problem in the US affecting women more than men problematic in applying male standards of quotnormalcyquot to women who may be pahtoliges as having low sexual desire compared to a male benchmark physical psychological factors all affect a person39s sexual desHe hypoactive sexual desire becomes a diagnosable disorder when this absence of desire causes personal distress or problems in the relationship hyposexual desire might best be considered as a discrepancy in desire between partners when partners routinely experience different levels of sexual desire to the point where it has a negative impact on their relationship cognitivebehavioral therapy CBT most successful in treating disorders of low sexual desire Focuses on how a person thinks and how these thoughts affect his or her attitudes and behaviors Sexual Aversion Disorders a person with sexual aversion disorder reacts to sexual contact or activity with extreme discomfort disgust or fear 0 can occur in both sexes though more common in women 0 some women even avoid gynecology appts sensate focus designed to reduce anxiety these exercises help participants focus on the sensory experience rather than viewing orgasm as the sole goal of sex SEXUAL AROUSAL DISORDERS de ned as the persistent or recurrent inability to attain or maintain suf cient sexual excitement be it erection or lubrication for satisfactory sexual encounters impotence failure to achieve or maintain an erection suf cient for sexual activity most men experience this at least once in ther lives when persistent may be classi ed as erectile dysfunction ED increases with age more treatments for ED than for any other type of sexual problem cognitive behavioral therapy and a range of pharmacological surgical or mechanical approaches oral medications most popular Viagra originally developed a a drug to treat blood pressure and cardiovascular ailments it39s effectiveness in promoting erection was discovered The ED durgs Viagra Cialis and Levitra all work by inhibiting the enzyme phosphodiesterase5 men who take Ecstasy may experience increased sexual desire but also impairment in their ability to maintain an erection Vacuum pressure pumps can be used to increase blood ow to the penis to help men achieve erections if penile blood vessels are blocked or damaged vascular surgery may reserve the problem When all else fails in treatment of erectile dysfunction a penile implant may be used In atable or partially rigid at all times WOMEN 0 may be slow to lubricate or have trouble becoming sexually excited in response to sexual stimulation 0 women39s sexual arousal is not as closely tied to their physical responses as it is in men instead anxiety fatigue negative imagery or relationship issues are more likely to underlie a woman39s lack of sexual arousal no drugs available for any form of female sexual dysfunction ORGASMIC DISORDERS MEN orgasmic disorders characterized by one of the following two conditions 0 1 a persistent or recurrent delay in or absence of orgasm following sexual stimulation or o 2 the occurrence of orgasm more quickly than desired most commonly manifested in males as early ejaculation and in females as a delay in orgasm the incidence of quottoo rapidquot female orgasm is rarely recognized and not classi ed as a sexual dysfunction in the DSMlV TR no universally accepted de nition or diagnostic criteria for premature ejaculationPE in general men wit PE ejaculate too rapidyeither with minimal sexual stimulation or shortly after penetration for their partners to fully enjoy sexual relations physicaly men with PE may have abnormal responses of the sympathetic nervous system early in the sexual response cycle which slows erections and prematurely triggers the ejaculatory re ex premature ejaculation is treated with a combination of cognitivebehavioral strategies plus pharmaceutical interventions while no medications are currently indicated speci cally for PE doctors can prescribe antidepressants which have been found to have a side effect of delaying ejaculation number of techniques that can be employed to lengthen intercourse such as squeezing the glans or the quotstopstarttechnique in which he lerns to emporarly halt sexual stimulation ight before ejaculation delayedOejactulation occurs when a man is unable to reach orgasm or reaches orgasm only after prolonged stimulation for example intercourse that lasts for 3045 minutes or more WOMEN failure to achieve orgasm with intercourse is more common for women than erectile dif culties are for men orgasmic disorders are the second most frequently reported sexual problem by women after hypoactive sexual desire anorgasmia an inability to reach orgasm even with quotadequatequot stimulation orgasmic disorder more commonly has psychosocial foundations 0 women with orgasmic disorders are less likely to be educated about sex less comfortable in communicating their desire for clitoral stimulation to their partners more likely to have negative attitudes about masturbation and more likely to have psychosocial problems SEXUAL PAIN DISORDERS Dyspareunia dif cult or painful or sexual intercourse women are more often affected by this problem than men 0 can result from both physical factorssuch as infection endometriosis vaginal dryness or phimosis and emotional factorssuch as inhibitions or abuse vaginismus painful involuntary spasm of the pubococcygeus PC muscles of the outer third of the vagina making penetration dif cult or impossible penis captivus term used to describe an occurrence that is theoretically possiblea man becomes stuck in a woman after her vaginal muscles clamp down on his penis Sexual Issues in Gay and Lesbian Relationships heterocentricity evaluating sexual issues of people in samesex relationships according to what is deemed standard quot or quotnormal for heterosexual relationships many studies have shown that lesbians have less sex than heterosexual women When comparing men and women in heterosexual relationships with those in same sex relationships there are more similarities than differences 0 men and women in mixed and same sex relationships report similar levels of sexual satisfaction and sexual communication gays and lesbians reported slightly higher levels of sexual desire than those in heterosexual relationships 0 Gay men have many of the same sexual concerns as hetero or bisexual men ED and desire discrepancy between partners some sexual issues are more commonly seen in men who have sex with men such as pain during receptive anal intercourse and the need to negotiate relationship openness agreements whereas other issues occur less frequently delayed ejaculation is not a common problem among gay men 0 Women who have sex with women report fewer sexual problems than women who have sex with men 0 Lesbian bed death the slang term for the diminishment of sexual activity between two longterm lesbian partners US Incidence of Sexual Dysfunctions men experience more sexual problems as they age which can be attributed to erectile dysfunction and a decrease in sexual desire women experience fewer problems as they mature except for dif culties associated with lubrication sexual instability in conjunction with inexperience may lea to mor tressful and less satisfying sexual encounters higher educational attainment was associated with fewer sexual problems married people show the lowest rates of sexual dif culties THE EFFECTS OF EXTERNAL SUBSTANCE SON SEXUAL AROUSAL Aphrodisiacs Herbs named for Aphrodite the Greek goddess of love and desire substances that are thought to arouse or increase sexual response generally if an aphrodisiac works it is because the user believes it will work the mind is the most powerful controller of sexual arousal a substance that causes erection is not necessarily an aphrodisiac the Spanish y case and plants various herbs and plants have been reported to improve sexual functioning tea from bark and roots of muira puama potency wood vegetable maca said to increase reproductive rates sperm counts and sexualdesue etcc Substances that improve overall health Druos zinc is necessary for sperm production and motility vaginal lubrication and hormone metabolism oysters amino acid arginine necessary for proper erectile functioning brown rice peanuts and cholocate vitamin E whole grains green leafy vegetables and wheat germ sperm production and motility sexual enrgy and endurance and other substances poppers popular in the bar scene of gay men in the 19705 and 19805 falsey considered as a possible cause for the unmade AIDS before the HIV virus was discovered cause a quothead rush and facilitate erection perhaps because of its ability to reduce inhibitions and judgments drinking is often associated with risky sexual behaviors Date rape drugs Rohypynol quot roo esquot or GHB mmay be slipped into a mperson39s drink making him or her more prone to sexual assult Ectasy MDMA has been called the quotlove drugquot because some nd it to increase empathy and bonding does not improve seuaI functioning and it has potentially fatal side effects amphetamine and cocaine may initially enhacnce sexual desire longterm use can lead to sexual dysfunction problems achieving erections and orgasm for example Ana ph rodisiacs de nition inhibit sexual response antidepressants Prozac work by affecting serotonin levels a substance involved in modulating sexual desire may delay r increase the dif culty in achieving erection and orgasm Opitoids such as codeine heroin oxycontin and the cough suppressant dextromethorphan also diminish sexual function and orgasm Nicotine constricts blood vessels which can impair the ability of the genitals to become engorged with blood during excitement
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'