JSIS 202 Week 7 Notes
JSIS 202 Week 7 Notes JSIS 202
Popular in Cultural Interactions in an Interdependent World
Popular in Jackson School of International Studies
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Pollard on Friday May 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JSIS 202 at University of Washington taught by Professor James Wellman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Cultural Interactions in an Interdependent World in Jackson School of International Studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 05/13/16
Religious and Human Security Monday, May 9, 2016 11:28 AM Extra Credit Tonight: Anti-Judaism Past and Present Religion and Human Security: Pathways of assertive and passive secularism Passive and Assertive Secularism: Historical Conditions, Ideological Struggles, and State Policies toward Religion • President Erdogan just dismissed Turkey's Prime Minister. He came to power in 2002, AKP. • Journalists dismissed and harassed • 2013, Erdogan jailed many military elite for life. • Used judiciary to silence political opponents Passive Secularism • US • Tolerant of public religion • Separationists and accommodations defend different limits Assertive Secularism • France and Turkey • Less tolerant public religion expression • Kemalists defend hard secularism • Erdogan, broaching more religious accommodations Key Variable: origins in state or non -state religious establishments: whether Muslim or Catholic • Is there an ancient regime? o In France: ancient regime that was Catholic dominated Is Turkey an exception? Are secular Muslim states an exception to this rule? O r do they follow the rule? Religious States • Iran • Pakistan • Saudi Arabia • Italy • Spain • India • Burma Secular States • Russia • Indonesia • Canada • Korea • Japan • Israel • Australia • Britain Religion and Human Security • State security, or national security o Human security is becoming more important • To Human Security: o Material welfare…shelter o Human rights… an impartial juridical system o Mental, emotional and religious security • Religious groups, both challenge and secure national security and human security o Afghanistan o Soka Gakkai o Poland o Egypt o Pakistan Origins Human Security • Franklin Roosevelt's 1941 Four Freedoms Speech o Right to enjoy freedom of speech and religion, from fear and want o Secular Social Gospel for the world o Form of Judeo-Christian secularism (1950s origin, or recently Abrahamic faiths) - Protestant, Catholic Jew, Will Herberg, 1955. • End of Cold War o 1994: United Nations Development Programme o Published: Human Development Report o People centered concept o Protection of people's lives, dig nity, and their market and social freedoms o Secularized social gospel Progress of Human Security • Kofi Anan, UN Secretary, 2000, endorsed the concept • "Human rights, good governance, access to education and health care and ensuring that individual chance to fulfill their potential" • Amartya Sen, Sadako Ogata, Nobel Laureates total reframing of international obligations • 2005, recent, most dramatic development, R2P doctrine (protection of vulnerable populations in states), by the international community - applying only within extreme and unusual cases, 2010. Definition of Human Security • A physical aspect, protection of threats to basic human welfare • A juridical piece, relating to protection from violations of human rights • A more elusive culturally conditioned factor, relating to a sense of personal autonomy and freedom - including religious freedom Arab Spring: Push for human security? • Many Arab Spring protesters looked to the Turkish Model as an ideal (contested but peaceful elections, fast-growing but liberal economy, secular constitution but Islamist government.) Policy Points on Religion and Human Security • Religion often, not always are good partners on human security • Religions, because of their strong identities, create partners, but also d ifficult opponents of state sourced human security. • Religions are best when they complement a robust state that shares concerns for universal human security. Religions fail, when they substitute for state care. • Religions, no matter, must be understood by s tate authorities, because they are such powerful purveyors of human identity and human security. Anti-Semitism and its Discontents Wednesday, May 11, 2016 11:27 AM The Ability to Mourn: Can we face the chaos? How to think about the modern world (psyc hology and sociology) How we respond to loss makes all the difference in the world Inability to Mourn • Anti-Semitism • Nazism • Conspiracy theories • Othering • Violence • Scapegoating Ability to Mourn • Psychoanalysis • Literature • Play and creativity • Nonviolent communication • Curiosity about the self and other The Ability Mourn: Reactions when confronted with the rise of rapid social and cultural change • Anti-Semitism is a response to an imaginary; to an imagined Jew, not a real Jew • All forms of prejudice are reactions to imaginaries • It's a response to loss One page typed paper due Friday, hard copy Ways that you each have dealt with social oppression of whatever kind, oppression due to race, ethnicity, whether because of gender, sexuality, class o r religion - how have you experienced this and how has it affected or changed you, as well as how you have responded to it. Your name and section should be on the paper and whether or not you would be willing to read it in class on Monday Antisemitism • A system, like a religion, or an imaginary world, to explain the world and solve the world's problems. • Forms of mimetic desire - envy • Scapegoating a vulnerable minority • Consequence of envy is deep hate that builds - resulting in forms of violence - a process that seems inevitable and constant Classic Varieites of Anti -Jewish Ideology • Anti-Judaism o Antipathy towards Judaism as a debased o Arch of Titus: Showing the spoils from the Jewish Temple Paul and the Jews • Book of Galatians: All under the law are cursed; justification comes by faith, not law. • Judaizers: forcing Gentiles to convert to Judaism before becoming Christian. • Galatians 3 and 5:3. • There are unintended consequences to every action Primary Historical Expressions • Pauline Theology: Early Church as new Israel Political Social Background • Widespread Jewish diaspora in antiquity - Development of Jewish Rabbinic Culture due in large part to two crushing rebellions • Jewish Theological Exclusivism: Monotheism • Jewish Social Separatism: o Sabbath, Diet, Circumcision Judeo-Phobia • Fear of Jews as demonic bearers of contaminating moral or physical deformities • Fascination with Jews as supernatural presences • Rise of nationalism: beginning o f Zionism, a secular initiative • Antisemitism functions like a religion: o Provides a comprehensive picture of the world o Offers an appropriate moral guide for action in the world o Offers an explanation Fatwa and Feminism Friday, May 13, 2016 11:25 AM Modernity • It emphasizes individualism, freedom and equality; it asserts that progress for humanity is possible through science, technology and democracy • It develops forms of market economy, moving away from religiously lie imitated feudalism and agrarian life and toward industry and urbanization. • Modernization is not neutral, partnered with Western colonialism Secularization • Modernity rejects religion's claim to govern and limits the authority of religion to the private sphere • Secularization demands the privatization of faith, and the separation of religion from state governance • Feminism has mixed results Fundamentalism • It re-asserts that a single religion has authority over the market, state, and specifically, over the individual • Fundamentalists often accept other aspects of modernity - the use of media, industry and technology - which they use against governments Iran Sociologist Chahla Chafiq • "Sexism is at the heart of the totalitarian project." • Multiple interpretations of how women, in particu lar, are spoken of in the Qur'an. In the modern period, this debate has been heated. • Post colonialist Muslim debate on women • Search fro Muslim identity - 1.5 billion people Women in Islam: Three Takes • Inner-Islamic Debate o Modernists • Because of internationalization of Islam outside of Arab borders - must avoid damaging acculturation processes • Derive living value system, need ijtihad - individual interpretation of scripture - and legal reform, separation of true sharia from cultural artifacts • Muhammad Abduh (d. 1905) • Building of virtuous community, emphasizing women's full human dignity - distinguish from the medieval jurisprudence of male dominance • Strong push for women's sociopolitical equality o Conservative or Traditionalist: • Forged based on scripture, verifying authority of community consensus • Defensive view towards modernity • Stipulate female legal inequality with men, from classical Islamic law • Invoking the medieval theme of women's innate physical and mental deficiencies as proof • Pitting women's emotionality (good mother) against men's rationality (provider and head of household) o Fundamentalists: • Scripturalists, conscience of the Muslim world • Battle against forces of darkness, within and without • Bypass work of centuries of legal -experts • Rejects past and present adaptations, and uses Ijtihad (individual scripturalist interpretations) to reject modernist formulations • Attempt to Islamicize and infuse Islamic values in a present immoral and corrupt (often Western) culture • Follows lead Muslim Brothe r Sayyid Qutb (hanged by Nasser in 1966) Karima Bennoune: No Fear Battle for Algiers Your Fatwa Does Not Apply Here • Fatwa o Mufti: Give a formal legal opinion, based on scripture, and tradition (Quran; Sunnah; scholarly consensus; and finally itjtihad) o Four modes of ethics: Obligatory; commendable; permissible; despised and not permitted o Fatwa's are not necessarily binding o Don't carry the weight of secular common -law opinions • What is a secular Muslim? o Karima Bennoune • Secular person of Muslim heritage • Concerned with fundamentalism and discrimination against Muslims by fundamentalists • Clashes are going on within civilizations as opposed to between them • Arab Spring brought mixed results: § Tunisia (first Arab country listed as "free" by Freedom House; and Egypt… a troubled history; § Saudi Arabia, supposedly moderate, one of the worst perpetrators, why is the US an ally? § Why support Hamas? It has coerced many Palestinians to agree with their fundamentalist violence • Agenda: § Her challenge to Western Liberals § Liberal sometimes embrace a moderate fundamentalism - think Saudi Arabia § Calling it the "Muslim Perspective" § In so doing they absolve themselves for responsibility for colonialism or the Iraq War § They don't have to worry about the tricky questions of human rights - these people, called Muslims have a culture for themselves § To complicate these Islamic cultures - people with multifarious backgrounds § Why she calls them Muslim Majority Societies, or people of Muslim heritage a nd culture § Culture conflict is within Muslim majority cultures, not with other cultures § Sometimes, violence is necessary against some forms of Salafi jihadism - too many Western liberals and leftists dispute this § Fundamentalism is NOT a security question but a question of human rights for millions of people § For human rights to exist, important necessity of the separation of mosque and state • Fatwa: o Malala Yousafzai • Question: why don't more Muslims speak out • After she was shot, a group of 50 Islamic cleric s issues a Fatwa for her death. o Karima Bennoune • Question: Why don't more Muslims speak out, Bennoune is doing exactly that • Incredible courage against incredible attacks and violence • The cloud of fear and intimidation is precisely what keeps so many quiet How should we respond? • Child soldiers; ISIS • Long term effects are horrific • Middle East is suffering a collective traumatization • Bennoune
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