Genetics Week 14
Genetics Week 14 BIOL/PBIO 3333
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauran Notetaker on Saturday May 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL/PBIO 3333 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Jim Thompson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 05/14/16
April 18, 2016 XIII. Genes and Development B. Regulation in Eukaryotes 1. Totipotency 2. Levels of regulation 3. DNA Organization in Eukaryotes 4. Gene regulation (Transcriptional control) a. Comparison to prokaryotes b. Ex.: Hormones 5. Processing control 6. Transport control 7. Translational control 8. RNA stability 9. Posttranslational modiﬁcation C. Pattern Formation Participation Activity #7 of 8 #3 1st strand - constitutive 2nd strand - inducible D+ and K+ always made N+ is only available inducibly #4 1st strand - inducible 2nd strand - constitutive The development of pattern and form in animals Cellular differentiation: differences in the proteins and related biochemical activities in different types of cells Pattern formation: spatial differences in cellular differentiation how are different cell types patterned within an organism Morphogenesis: literally, “the origin of form” changes in shape and form due to movements of cells and sheets of cells (e.g., gastrulation, neurulation) fertilization morula blastula gastrula neurulation Contribution by Each of the Three Germ Layers in a Mammal Ectoderm epidermis of skin hair and nails entire nervous system lens of the eye, etc. Endoderm lining of the digestive tract lining of the respiratory system - trachea, brooch, lungs liver pancreas lining of the gall bladder urinary bladder Mesoderm - “meso” = “middle” muscles - smooth, cardiac, and skeletal connective tissue - bone and cartilage blood and blood vessels dermis and the skin kidneys ovaries and testes Totipotency - the ability of a nucleus to code for normal development of a new individual with all its varied cell types in animals, totipotency normally reduced and eventually lost beginning in the blastoderm stage; often retained better in plants excepting are stem cells that retain some limited degree of developmental ﬂexibility A goal of cloning is ﬁnding ways to revers this normal loss of nuclear totipotency morphogen = conveys positional information and promotes developmental changes CAM = cell adhesion molecules April 20, 2016 XIII. Genes and Development B. Regulation in Eukaryotes 1. Totipotency 2. Levels of regulation 3. DNA Organization in Eukaryotes 4. Gene regulation (Transcriptional control) a. Comparison to prokaryotes b. Ex.: Hormones 5. Processing control 6. Transport control 7. Translational control 8. RNA stability 9. Posttranslational modiﬁcation C. Pattern Formation Caenorhabditis elegans The developmental fate of every single somatic cell (959 in the adult hermaphrodite; 1031 in adult male) has been mapped The Nuclear Receptor Superfamily a large family of transcription factors found in both vertebrates and invetebrates NRs characterized by two highly conserved regions: C Domain: binds to DNA (DBA) E Domain: binds to signaling molecule (e.g., hormone ligand)(LBD) GRE = glucocorticoid response element ERE = estrogen response element VDRE = Vitamin D response element These are cis-regulatory sequences protein hormones vs. steroid hormones protein hormones like insulin (inactive hexamer) endocrine glands - anywhere in the body Steroid hormones snRNPs: small nuclear Alternate splicing Short transcript - protein is secreted intron not spliced out long transcript - with additional hydrophobic amino acids, protein is membrane-bound transport control examples ~10^6 histones will pass through nuclear pores every 3 minutes in a dividing nucleus ribosomes subunits are assembled in nucleus, actively transported out mRNA - only about 5% RNA made in nucleus leaves Translational control Not all mRNAs bind to ribosomes equally mRNAs differ in their longevity within the cell Example: early developmental steps in Drosophila as a model system morphogen gradients and pattern formation April 22, 2016 XIII. Genes and Development B. Regulation in Eukaryotes C. Pattern Formation 1. Gene activity in early embryos 2. Potential information gradients D. A Tool for Developmental Genetics: DNA Sequencing XIV. Genes in Populations A. Gene Pool B. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Example: early developmental steps in Drosophila as a model system morphogen gradients and pattern formation Homeotic Mutations bithorax - two thorax order of genes affect the same One DNA sequencing approach uses radioactively-labelled nucleotides that terminate protein synthesis Mapping DNA sequences requires: template DNA (single strand) primers DNA polymerase dNTPS, grows 5’ to 3’ Mendelian cross between two heterozygotes yield simple prediction: Aa x Aa 1/4 : 2/4 : 1/4 p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1 p = frequency of “A” q = frequency of “a” Assumptions Sexual reproduction Diploid No selection Mating is at random (panmixis) Population size is large (mathematically inﬁnite) No migration No mutation
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