Week 7 - Wednesday and Friday Lecture
Week 7 - Wednesday and Friday Lecture BIOL 123 001
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BIOL 123 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anastassia Erudaitius on Sunday May 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 123 001 at University of California Riverside taught by Dr. Rao in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Virology in Biology at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 05/15/16
Virology lecture 5/11/16 The virus replicates and assembles into infectious particles o They do not bud and exit the cell In animal and human cells budding occurs Only takes two days to spread to entire leaf Initial infection is the point at which the insect fed on the leaf o Once the virus is deposited in the cell, it replicates and begins to move to the next cell – short distance movement o Moving from bottom of plant to top of plant – long distance movement Once the particular leaf is infected Virus enters leaf first it goes to the roots (not the top of the plant) then once it has reached the roots the virus spreads upward Some viruses can infect an entire plant in the matter of 7 – 10 days Plants do have an immune system o Plants don’t have antibodies but they do have a defense mechanism o RNA silencing Virus modifies plant cell structures so that they can replicate within those structures All plant viruses encode movement protein o Unusual feature of plant viruses o This is the protein that helps the virus move from cell to cell Structure of TMV o Very stable virus o This virus is easy to purify, separate from nucleic acids, then you can study the structure of the protein and nucleic acids o Rod-shaped / helical symmetry TMV o Translation to assembly takes 40 min o Replication does NOT mean infection o Infection means the virus must invade surrounding cells also Virus uses ER as site of replication Uses plasmodesmata to move from one cell to another cell Viruses come in different sizes and shapes o This is where the movement protein comes in o Movement protein binds to the plasmodesmata and viral nucleic acids --> it then dialates/enlarges plasmodesmata In most viruses only movement protein alone is sufficient to promote movement from one cell to another In other viruses, they require both the movement protein, and capsid- dependent protein Not all plants are highly susceptible to viruses Hypersensitive Response – some plants produce lesions to defend itself against viruses Cross protection – o Let’s say you have strain A TMV (serious) and strain B TMV (mild) o First inoculate with mild strain which will give mild symtpoms o Then you inoculate/challenge with the serious strain --> the plant will not not experience symtpoms Coat protein protection does not protect against free nucleic acids Virology Lecture 5/13/2016 Film – Precious Earth Mapping the Human Condition 6.3 billion people on Earth Data maps based on statistical data from different regions o Data maps help track spread of infectious diseases Avian influenza is not a new disease o In 2003 it ravaged the Netherlands WNV originally from Africa --> spread to New York Infectious diseases said to be the most significant threat to humans Avian Influenza o 30 million birds recalled in 70 days after Avian influenza outbreak in 2003 o 86 people infected o Human-to human transmission o Data map showed day-to-day movement of the disease over 73 days o Chickens, eggs, and feed quarantined to certain area o H7N7 th o By the 10 day the infection had reached about 30 farms o On 12 day farmer noticed something was wrong with his chickens – about 20 chickens infected with Bird Flu o Initial destruction of chickens not done fast enough o Prime Minister of Agriculture claimed bird flu could not kill humans o Since the virus first appeared has been investigating the jump from birds to humans o Farmer contracted H7N7, and contracted conjunctivitis o Government ordered people to use antiviral agent, but not until 6thday of outbreak o Government set up poultry-free buffer zone -- established in Southern part of Netherland o In the buffer zone CO2 used to kill chickens o The Maas River was expected to halt the virus but it didn’t – the infection crossed the buffer zone and the river o Vet conducting blood samples of chicken died Vet took blood samples at the farm Fever and severe headache Doctor in charge ruled out H7N7 because no evidence of conjunctivitis Doctor did not administer antiviral medication Virus had mutated and caused a serious case of pneumonia o 10 days after poultry farmer came down with avian flu, his daughter became sick, and then her mother became sick --> they responded well to treatment and spread was prevented First case of human-to-human transmission o Last calling of chickens took place on the 37 day after the start of the outbreak West Nile Virus o First found in Uganda, Africa o Suddenly appeared in New York o More than 13,000 people infected o 520 people have died o Transmitted by mosquitoes, transmitted to humans and birds o Can affect nervous system o Data maps made to analyze spread of WNV o Dr. Guptill Infection began in New York and started spreading to the west in the following year Believed it was initially introduced in airport Initially appeared to be isolated in New York, except also present in Baltimore --> present in dead crow Crows do not normally migrate long distances, relatively local Believed virus spread along Central Flyway in 2003 o Atlantic Flyway of migratory birds o Mississippi Flyway o Infected birds flying down Atlantic flyway intersected birds flying down Mississippi Flyway, newly infected birds flew back North and transmitted the virus to mosquitos and then humans, later birds flew down the central flyway and infected humans further to the west o Colorado had the most infections of any state Viruses travel rapidly along transportation routes such as railways
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