C163 Week 4 Notes
C163 Week 4 Notes Crm/Law C163
Popular in Ethics and Politics of Justice
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by bita.arabian on Sunday May 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Crm/Law C163 at University of California - Irvine taught by Geoff Ward in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Ethics and Politics of Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 05/15/16
C163 Week 4 Lecture 8 Moral Development & Ethics of Care How do we become moral? Kohlberg’s stages of Moral development Lawrence Kohlberg’s Universal Stages His argument: o Moral development proceeds gradually, through stages, in a process linked to the development of cognitive skills or intellectual faculties o Why? Because morality is tied to thinking and reasoning (ex: practical wisdom; utilitarianism, etc.), not affect or emotion o Kohlberg’s “universal” stages of moral development are held to be sequential and irreversible. Their “conventional” nature relates to how common they are believe to be in the mature adult population Level & Stages of Moral Development Level 1 Preconventional Morality: emphasis on egoism and selfinterest o Stage One: Punishment & Obedience o Stage Two: Instrumental Purpose & Exchange (right action and moral consideration) Level Two Conventional Morality: emphasis on society, care, and conformity o Stage Three: Interpersonal expectations and conformity o Stage Four: Law and Order/Society System Maintenance Level Three Post conventional Morality: emphasis on abstract, universal principles o Stage Five: Social contract/utility/rights o Stage Six: Universal ethical principles Ethics of Care: A Feminist Insight The Feminist Critique of Ethical Theory Revisiting Kohlberg’s evidence: Jake and Amy on stealing drugs Does the absence of women’s voices in moral philosophy distort classical and traditional ethical theory Feminist scholars criticize moral philosophy for: o Assuming the isolated individual, independent and separate from everyone else o Constructing the objective of moral philosophy as theorizing how individuals ought to treat each others o Relying on contract theories to enter individuals into moral relationships o Emphasizing impartiality and universality in their ethical theories Jack and Amy on Drug Stealing These two children, both 1 years old, and in the same sixth grade class at school, participated in a study to determine whether sex roles influence the measuring of human moral development Jack & Amy: Valuing Rules vs. Relationships Jake was clear that Heinz’ moral duty was to steal the drug. With unswerving logic, he constructed the dilemma as a conflict between two principles; the right to property and the right to life Where moral principles conflict, Jake argued, there is a hierarchy of values which one must apply. Life is a higher value than property, so Heinz must steal He was quite certain that, under the circumstances, Heinz would steal, and he suggested he should receive the least possible punishment Amy on the other hand, felt that theft was not the answer. She was concerned that if Heinz were caught and went to jail, his wife would be even worse off. She constructed the dilemma as one of misunderstanding. The druggist could not have understood the situation Amy was certain there was another solution to the problem In a Different Voice: Gender and Morality Male Moral development: Boys and Men tend to… o See moral life in terms of justice and rights o See treating everyone fairly and impartially as a moral standard o Try to resolve issues by applying formal/abstract rules fairly o Make moral decisions concerned with: Individual rights and autonomy Noninterference and impartiality Application of rights and rules to abstract hypothetical dilemmas Categorical Rules o Ask: Have the rules been properly followed and applied? Female Moral Development: Girls and women tend to… o See moral life in terms of care and responsibility o See care as a moral imperative o Try to resolve issues by seeking solutions that maintain relationships o Make Moral decisions concerned with: Maintaining relationships Acknowledging interdependence Expressing empathy and compassion Contextual consideration (“it depends”) o Ask: Have relationships been maintained or were people hurt? Carol Gilligan: DeCentering Man On these and other experiments Gilligan noted that girl’s and women’s responses did not coincide with Kohlberg’s moral stages (of which women could only achieve the second level b/c they are focused on caring for others) Gilligan contends that Jake’s responses could be located at a higher moral level only on the assumption that an ethic of abstract principle is superior to an ethic that stressed caring and personal relationships There are typical differences in male and female thinking on moral issues, but this difference should not be expressed in terms of deficiency on the part of women The Ethic of Care Explained An ethic of care conceives moral life as a network of relationships with particular persons, and it sees living well as caring (beyond duty) for those people within those relationships o Women seek a detailed knowledge of a particular situation and to resolve dilemmas by reference to the relationships involved o An ethic of care expresses certain sensitivities and attitudes towards others than can be promoted as good ways to act and live in particular situations (it does not establish??)
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