Juvenile Gangs Soc Sci 164D
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by drinksomedrpepper on Sunday May 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc Sci 164D at University of California - Irvine taught by Professor Valadez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 05/15/16
Juvenile Gangs Week 4 Lecture 7 Why do kids join gangs? How does brain development affect kids and their risk of joining a gang? Being raised poor contributes greater likelihood to violence Research suggests: youth, minority status, and poverty increase the likelihood of being violently victimized Poverty Being raised poor has been found to contribute to a greater likelihood of involvement in crime and violence Childhood aggression can also be a predictor for drinking problems Both behaviors are encouraged, approved, and expected in the gang sub-culture Post reinforcement for doing illegal activities All gang members are not addicts Early aggressive behavior in children which is caused by bad brain development An examination of the family structure, neighborhood, peers, academic performance, and individuals tends to show what risk factors can damage stage four and five brain development Jokie Para o Girl gang member o Does not like her father because he has morals o Lives with mother where the brother is around gang members o Consider gang member as family and cannot leave o Normal to see people killed o DO not think about leaving because there is a body bag and people constantly die o Sister also led two lives: gang and assistant 11-16 when parents divorce, kids join gangs because it replaces things that were in a family We go back to familial issues and the developing brain Neglected from parents, not fed well, not bonding with parents, hinder brain development and underdevelopment from making good decisions Can grow up with a greater risk of being involved in criminal behavior, uneducated, develop mental health, and physical issues Richard K o Father and financial job that was also a serial killer o Secret criminal life that was said to be “business” o Grew up without love and was abused o Led two lives When there is no love in the family, you become dysfunctional Brain Development How you are treated and raised when you’re young will determine how you will act when you are a young adult Psychosocial Stages of Development (time you bond with family) Birth to 1 year: trust vs. mistrust parents 2-4 years: autonomy vs. shame and doubt (shame is different than guilt) 4-5 years: initiative vs. guilt 5-12 years: industry vs. inferiority Adolescence – puberty Adulthood Disruptions to Healthy Development Abuse: physical, mental, emotional Rape/molestation Violence Malnutrition/starvation Neighborhood effects (Erin Brokovich) Pregnancy Seattle Study Defining a mechanism that can used to predict gang membership Longitudinal study 800 youth Seattle area 1985-2001 Hill, Lu and Hawkins are the PI’s Their research confirms prior studies The more risk factors present the greater chance of joining a gang Gang members engage in more delinquent behaviors than none gang members Gang members use, sell drugs and get arrested more often than non gang members Gang members are more likely to commit property and violent crimes and abuse drugs than non-gang members Gang members are twice as likely to carry guns than non-gang members The prime age to join a gang is 15 years old In the Seattle study, 26.2 percent of the African American students joined a gang verses 12.4 percent of the Asian American and 10.2 percent of the European American students There is also no information comparing the studied student population with the community demographics No Hispanic generational gangs in this study One has to assume the study’s demographics also reflect the general population demographic If this assumption is accurate, there was not an influential amount of Hispanic students in the school that were used for the study According to the study, the risk of joining a street gang rose sharply for children who were 15 years of age, even though there was risk of membership at every age. Age 15 is when puberty starts Notable, most children start high school near age 15 and develop group behaviors and get self worth from group. Also a time when secondary sexual characteristics are developing However, it is obvious that gang behaviors can exist prior to formal gang membership recognition. Usually, gang membership is not granted quickly. There is a courting process involved. California has highest tagging rate and many people tag during night because of the good weather A lot of white tagging crews Important to see what locations you can tag and how extreme Want recognition and fame of gang group so they use tag or graffiti Tagger is a form of gangs but many cities do not consider taggers as gangs because there is no crime The majority of children who joined a gang were active members for one year or less Only 16.9% were active for two years or less and 10.5% for three years or less Only 2.4 % remained in the gang for four years. Of the 124 children who joined the gang this represents only 3 children Gang population increases because there is a fueling of the population where more people join Only one child of the 124 studied remained in his or her gang for five years This model is not consistent with finding for generational gangs, in particular Hispanic street gangs where it has been common to identify 10 to 20 year veterans of gang membership In fact, GHSG members tend to remain and live within the areas of communities where they grew up in (gang turf) and remain members of their gang for life Consider themselves the policeman of their turf GHSG (Generational Hispanic Street Gangs) members tend to pass on street gang membership to their siblings and close family relatives Kids are programmed at home that it is normal and a expected behavior and parents encourage them to join The Seattle study researchers concluded the more risk factors that are present, the greater the chance of joining a street gang Cannot predict gang membership, because there are kids with a lot of factors that do not join gangs. Have resilience; adapted well and got out. Example of resisting gang membership is in Waikiki Other researches and criminal justice professionals support this position like Pettit, kokko, and Pulkkien The risk factors tend to have a cumulative effect on the child’s propensity to join a gain Risk factors at an early age have a cumulative effect on the brain that prevent portion in the brain (white portions) from developing and hence, making good decisions The identified risk factors were classified into five distinct areas: o Neighborhood o Family o School o Peer o Individual These factors influence brain development, so if there are problems in these areas, then brain does not fully develop Drugs Florida number one state for indoor marijuana growing If It doesn’t affect me I don’t care – High school student News report of Hell’s angel motorcycle gang that sells drugs and was arrested and deal drugs to high school students Most victims of crime don’t care unless it effects them Early marijuana use on news where toddlers smoke pot Brain areas affected by THC and Cannabinoids: emotions, motor skills and learning, memory storage, metabolic process, basic function, perception, coordination, muscle control, consciousness Cannabis dependence brain is broader and frontal cortex is not as developed Nicotine news: 18 months addicted to smoking and cries and throws tantrums when he cant smoke Brain development with smoking or second hand smoking PCP: get hot, get naked, hallucinate, smoke in stage four and stage five development, Family structure: One parent only (breaks trust of kids) One parent plus other adults Parental attitudes favoring violence (beating) Low bonding with parents Low household income Sibling antisocial behavior Poor family management Juvenile Incarceration Rate America has the highest juvenile incarceration rate among all industrialized nations of the world 1.9 million per year Put more juveniles (under 18) in jail than any other countries in the world 336/100,000 American kids are under detention or correctional custody on any day 14% of American kids have at least one arrest by age 18 24% of American kids have at least one arrest by age 23 Despite the widest array of legal protections in the world (American kids are statistically the most delinquent, drug addicted, most disrespected progeny in the word No amount of money or legalization can force parents to take charge of their families, if they choose not to do so Parents are they key supervisors who can make chance happen and make it stick – not outside agencies Parents cant expect to change their kids behaviors unless they’re willing to change their own Kids choose the groups they identify with depending on where they live
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