PSC 1 Week 7 Notes
PSC 1 Week 7 Notes PSC 1
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Dillard on Sunday May 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. Simonton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 05/15/16
5/9/16 Memory II Elaborative Rehearsal • the more deeply we process information, the better we remember it • visual processing—how the sentence looks to us, the font, word spelling • auditory processing—how the sentence sounds, perhaps repeatedly speaking the sentence aloud • semantic processing—emphasize the meaning of the sentence • Context-dependent learning • refers to the external context in which the learning occurred • State-dependent learning • refers to the internal state in which the learning occurred people remember things better when they are in the same state as when they learned them • • sometimes refers to mood—mood dependent learning Retrieval • recall—“describe the differences between short-term and long-term memory” • tip of the tongue (TOT) phenomenon—person often knows the first letter of the word and how many syllables it contains • recognition—“all statements below (a-d) about short term memory and long-term memory are true except:” Where is memory stored in our brain? • the size of the lesions in the rats’brains made a difference in their memory but the locations did not How are memories malleable? • storage of information depends on our interpretation of that information • schemas—knowledge structures we have stored in our memories • they guide our attention to relevant information and help us interpret meaning based on our previous experiences • gist—basic meaning or context of the information you are given • source monitoring—where did I hear, see, experience that? • the average age of earliest memory in adults is 3.5 years • they are few and lack significant details • what we remember is often a result of conversations with adults, photos, stories • infantile amnesia may be because hippocampi are not fully developed until age 2, self awareness is essential for creating memories about the self, and children do not understand events well enough to encode them properly • in childhood, age at earliest memory depends upon the age of the person doing the remembering • abducted by aliens study— more 7-8 year olds reported false memories compared to the 11-12 year olds Flashbulb memories—memories so vivid that people appear to recount them in remarkable, even photographic detail 5/10/16 Intelligence Measuring Intelligence • sensory capacity—people with higher sensory capacity (e.g. sight, smell, hearing) would acquire more knowledge than those with lower sensory capacity • scientists used to think that intelligence could be measure by the angle of the head and the size of the brain • there were some differences between Einstein’s brain and the typical brain • Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed the first intelligence test • it was meant to measure the overall thinking ability • reasoning • thinking beyond the here and now • understanding hypothetical concepts • Lewis merman modified the previous test to establish a set of norms for the new test (Stanford Binet Intelligence Test) • Deviation IQ—how far you deviate from the average score which is 100 Eugenics Movement • brought about to encourage people with good genes to reproduce and those with bad ones were discouraged from reproducing • Some questions are on intelligence tests • analogies (ex: a book is to eating as a fork is to _____ reading) • patterns (37, 34, 31, 28… 25) • spatial (Which shape does not belong?) • classification (Which diagram is the result of folding the diagram at the top?) • General Intelligence—a single factor shared across all intelligence items • Spearman’s two-Factor model: verbal, quantitative, and abstract reasoning, and short-term memory are all part of general intelligence • Cattle and Horn’s fluid (solving problems we have never seen before) and crystalized (knowledge we have accumulated over time) intelligence • Sternberg’s Triacrchic Model • 3 distinct types of intelligence • analytical, practical, and creative • Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Model • eight frames of mind that are each separate from the others What do IQ tests predict? • academic success—scores and grades are positively correlated at 0.5 • occupation—people with higher IQs tend to have more mentally challenging jobs • job performance—positive correlation in professions that are mentally challenging What influences IQ? • genetic and environmental influences • twin studies—twins raised together and apart score similarly on IQ measures • adopted children’s IQs tend to resemble those of their biological parents • no differences between men and women IQ, higher variability in men compared to women • no differences between race for IQ • when children from impoverished environments are adopted into home with enriched environments their IQs increase 5/11/16 Module 3 Review Human Development • Cognitive Theorist: Vygotsky • children learn through social and cultural influences • scaffolding—parents provide structure and take it away over time • zone of proximal development—children are ready to use scaffolding during this time • Cognitive Theorist: Piaget • assimilation—four legs=>dog, sees cow and says doggy • accommodation—new understanding of doggy and cow • stages of development • sensorimotor—birth to 2 years children understand based on their physical interactions • preoperational—2 to 7 years children only see things from their own point of view • concrete operational • formal operational • Attachment assessment in human infants • MaryAinsworth’s Strange Situation Procedure—used to assess the child’s behavior during reunion • attachment styles (secure, insecure anxious, insecure avoidant, disorganized) depend on how available the mother has been to the child in the past Learning • Habituation—decrease in strength of behavior in response to harmless stimuli • Sensitization—increase in strength of behavior in response to dangerous or irritating stimuli • Classical Conditioning • neutral stimulus (metronome) • unconditioned stimulus (dog food) • pair them multiple times • unconditioned response (dog salivates for food) • Operant Conditioning—learning controlled by the consequences of an organism’s behavior • emitted voluntarily • think of boxes with increasing/decreasing behavior and adding/taking something away • negative reinforcement (think of taking aspirin) • if you want to reinforce a behavior you want to do it variably Observational learning • • Mineka and Cook study • monkeys raised in captivity are not afraid of snakes • researchers showed monkeys videos of other monkeys reaction in fear to snakes, then the monkeys acquired a fear of snakes • biological influences—monkeys are not afraid of flowers when the same test is done Memory • understand the three memory systems (sensory, short-term, long-term) • differences between short and long term memory • short-term: • can hold between 5 and 7 pieces of info but can increase the capacity by chunking • info is lost after about 20 seconds • long-term: • capacity is enormous • information endures for many years (sometimes permanently) • memory processes: attention, rehearsal, encoding, storage, retrieval • KNOW: false memory debate: • memories are malleable—> causes problems with eyewitness identification (weapon focus: people look at the weapon that is being pointed at them rather than the person’s face) • infantile amnesia—if people do have early memories, they are few and lack significant detail Intelligence • deviation IQ—average score is 100 • eugenics (good genes)—movement was to discourage people with bad genes to not reproduce and people with good genes to reproduce
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