week 15 Notes
week 15 Notes History 110A
Cal State Fullerton
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Veronica Barragan on Sunday May 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 110A at California State University - Fullerton taught by Stefan Chrissanthos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see World Civilization to 16th Century in History at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 05/15/16
17 century/1600’s AD Japan A. Japan a. Has always had an emperor b. The emperor was figure head, they exercised no real military or political power i. The shogun had a lot of power and it was a hereditary position c. The shogun of 1551 had no real power i. There were 120 little states who were constantly in a civil war. This was called the Ag of Warring States d. Eventually they would be reunified and would be known as modern day Japan B. Oda Nobunaga a. In 1551, he takes over half of a province. During this time there were 66 provinces. There were 119 other guys just like Oda b. During 1551-1582, Odaconquers almost half of Japan. He had power of 31 provinces c. He was successful because he took advantage of new military technology. d. During this time the first Europeans arrived in Japan and they brought with them the latest military technology, specifically guns and cannons. e. The Japanese did not have guns or canons, but they did have steel and gunpowder, so when they saw these weapons it was not difficult to figure out how they worked and started to manufacture. f. However, the Samurai did not want to use these new weapons because they believed it was a wimpy way to fight. Oda did not care he would use whatever worked. g. Another reason why he was successful is because he was incredibly ruthless i. It was Odawho killed the last shogun and since he did not care about titles he did not take the title ii. In 1582, the rebellion of one of his generals forced Oda to commit suicide. This led to another civil war, which was won by one of Oda’s general’s Hideyoshi C. Hideyoshi a. Moved quickly after Oda’s death to gain power b. Within 2 years he controlled almost half the country and moved quickly to conquer the rest of Japan c. In 1590 he conquered the rest of Japan d. He was a commoner, so he could not be shogun so he comes up with Taiko, which means Regent e. One major problem he faced was that he needed to find a successor, so that when he dies there could be a peaceful transition of power. f. He did not have children, so he did not have heirs g. At first he decided that his nephew would be his successor, but then to the shock of everyone one of Hideyoshi’s girlfriends gave birth to a boy, his name was Hideyori. h. Hideyoshi was excited because he now had a son. In order to insure that his son had no rivals he ordered his nephew and nephew’s family to commit suicide and they did. i. Unfortunately for Hideyoshi and Hideyori in 1598, Hideyoshi becomes very sick and it is clear that he is dying so he becomes terrified because Hideyori was only 5. j. He knew Hideyori was in trouble, so he set up a very elaborate system, which would govern Japan until Hideyori was old enough to govern himself. k. In 1598 Hideyoshi died l. Unfortunately, almost immediately the system he established broke down because of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Now that Hideyoshi was dead he was the most powerful ruler and he wanted to conquer Japan and get rid of Hideyori. m. However, there were a lot of rulers who wanted to stop him, these leaders opposed Tokugawa either because they were loyal to Hideyoshi and Hideyori, or because they wanted to take over for himself. n. The opponents of Tokugawa were led by Ishida Mitsunari. By 1600, Japan was divided into two hostile groups. On one side there was Tokugawa and his allies and on the other side there was Ishida and his allies. D. Sekigahara a. In 1600, the battle of Sekigahara was fought b. Ishida had a plan on how he was going to win this battle, Ishida his some men in the hills so Tokugawa would think that he has a numerical advantage. When they attack Ishida would call the other who would attack from the side and behind. c. Hopefully Ishida’s plan catches them by surprise and he wins the battle. d. This was a very good plan, but the guys in yellow were secretly in league with Tokugawa. e. The guys in the hills attacks Ishida’s army instead of Tokugawa’s and Ishida is killed while fleeing. f. This battle is important because it gives Tokugawa control over Japan and in 1603 he proclaims himself shogun. This begins the Tokugawa Shogunate, which would last from 1603-1868 g. Tokugawa needs to do something about Hideyori, because the older he gets the more he reminds people of Hideyoshi, so it was too dangerous to let him live, so he starts to look or an excuse to kill Hideyori. h. In 1615, Hideyori was living in Osaka, he had a big bell made and in this bell he inscribed all the important leaders in Japan name, including Tokugawa. Tokugawa’s name is misspelled, so he declares war on Hideyori. This is a war Hideyori knows he can’t win so he begs for mercy on his life and family’s life, but Tokugawa says no. With Hideyori the last Japanese threat to Tokugawa was gone. E. During this time the Europeans first arrived in this land, specifically the Spanish. However, in Japan they did not enjoy the same advantages as in the Americas a. The Japanese had steel weapons, the horse, and they had the same diseases as the Europeans, so the Spanish realized that they would not be able to conquer japan militarily, so they try to do it religiously. b. They send out Christian missionaries and eventually some of the Japanese do convert to Christianity. c. Tokugawa decides that something must be done in order to stop the spread of Christianity, because of Will Adams d. He was shipwrecked in Japan and becomes very god friend with Tokugawa. At this time the British and Spanish were bitter enemies, so Adams tells Tokugawa all about the things that the Spanish did in the Americas. This confirms Tokugawa’s suspicions e. Tokugawa outlaws Christianity. Those who refuse to forget about Christianity are executed. He kicks out all foreigners, with a few exceptions. Japanese were not allowed to travel abroad. f. Japan would be closed for most of the Tokugawa Shogunate until they are forced to ope up by the US
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