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Biology 162 Week 7 Lecture Notes

by: Jenn Guzman

Biology 162 Week 7 Lecture Notes Biology 162

Jenn Guzman
Cal Poly
GPA 3.3

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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture for Biology 162 over the general Animal Endocrine System.
Intro to Organismal Form and Function
Dr. Taylor, Dr. Ritter
Class Notes
Endocrine, system, Bio, Biology, 162, dr, Taylor, Ritter, glands, animal, Hormones, Negative, Positive, feedback, homeostasis
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenn Guzman on Sunday May 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 162 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Taylor, Dr. Ritter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro to Organismal Form and Function in Biological Sciences at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 05/15/16
Sunday, May 15, 2016 Animal Endocrine System Biology 162, Week 7 Lecture I. Experiment: What Causes Male-Typical Anatomy and Behavior in Roosters? A. Normal cock (with both testes removed): had small combs and wattles, no interest in hens, a weak crow, and listless fight behavior B. Castrated Cock (with one testes replaced): experienced normal comb and wattles, an interest in hens, a normal crow, and aggressive fight behavior C. Conclusion: Testosterone is responsible for male physical characteristics, calling, mating, and running. II. Six Categories of Chemicals in Animals A. Autocrine Signals: act on the same cell that secretes it B. Paracrine Signals: diffuse locally and act on neighboring cells C. Endocrine Signals: hormones carried between cells by blood or other bodily fluids D. Neural Signals: diffuse a short distance between the presynaptic membrane of one neuron’s axon terminal to the post synaptic membrane of another neuron’s dendrites E. Neuroendocrine Signals: released from neurons but are carried by blood or other bodily fluids and act on distant cells F. Pheromones: released into the environment by an individual and act on another individual (i.e. honeybees release a pheromone to attract other bees in response to a predator, therefore acting as a defense mechanism) III.Major Endocrine Glands A. Hypothalamus: master neuroendocrine gland connected to the pituitary gland both directly (Posterior) and indirectly via blood vessels (Anterior) B. Thyroid: thyroid hormone regulates the metabolic rate of cells 1. Parathyroid Glands: Parathyroid hormones regulate blood calcium levels (important in muscle movement) 1 Sunday, May 15, 2016 C. Kidney: erthropoitin (RPO) stimulates bone marrow to make red blood cells D. Adrenal Glands (located on the tops of each kidney): aldosterone (ADH) stimulates kidneys to absorb more water by activating more aquaporins in the nephrons’ collecting ducts; cortisol is responsible for energy balance and long- term stress response E. Pancreas: insulin and glucagon regulate blood glucose levels; exocrine cells make digestive enzymes while endocrine cells make hormones F. Ovaries/Testes: sex steroid hormones 1. Testis Cross Section: seminiferous tubules make sperm, androgens secrete testosterone, and interstitial cells make testosterone 2. Ovaries Cross Section: oocyte, granuosa and thecal cells make hormones (estrogen, progesterone) while surrounding oocyte; thecal cells make testosterone, causing the granulose cells to make estrogen IV. Two Pituitary Glands A. Posterior: stores hormones only; comprised of all nervous tissue and is a direct extension of the hypothalamus 1. hormones travel down axons of neurosecretory cells to the posterior pituitary, into blood cells. 2. ADH: targets kidney nephrons, activating aquaporins to reabsorb more water in the collecting ducts; negative feedback loop 3. Oxytocin: targets uterine muscles and mammary glands, inducing more labor contractions during childbirth and lactation during nursing; positive feedback loop B. Anterior: makes their own hormones; comprised of endocrine cells and is indirectly connected to the hypothalamus via blood vessels 1. neurosecretory cells release hypothalamic hormones into blood vessels to the anterior pituitary; pituitary hormones are then released into main blood vessels of the body a) CRH released from the hypothalamus causes the release of ACTCH from the anterior pituitary gland; ACTH targets the adrenal cortex connected to the kidneys, stimulating the production of glucocorticoids (cortisol) this is 2 Sunday, May 15, 2016 also a negative feedback loop, as the production of cortisol inhibits further production of CRH&ACTH b) FSH&LH target the gonads (ovaries, testes) to stimulate the production of sex hormones; controls the menstrual cycle (negative feedback loop since sex hormones inhibit the production of FSH&LH) V. Anabolic Steroids (testosterone) vs Catabolic Steroids (cortisol) A. The administration of anabolic steroids inhibits the body’s natural production of sex hormones, inhibiting the production of FSH&LH so they cannot stimulate testes to produce testosterone. VI. Atrazine induces complete feminization and chemical castration of male frogs, fish, and mammals; has aromatase stimulatory effect that converts androgens to estrogen (leading to more breast cancer) 3


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