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Week 1-Ch 1 Abadinsky Notes

by: Ryan Desjardins

Week 1-Ch 1 Abadinsky Notes CCJ 3651

Ryan Desjardins
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About this Document

These notes cover the chapter review questions for Chapter 1
Drugs and Crime
Mark Feulner
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Desjardins on Monday May 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 3651 at Florida State University taught by Mark Feulner in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Crime in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 05/16/16
CCJ 3651­ Drugs and Crime Chapter 1 Review Questions 1.What are the three categories of psychoactive substances?  Depressants o Depressants­controls the central nervous system and can reduce pain. Alcohol is the most frequently used drug in this category, and opiate derivative heroin (aka narcotics,  composed of heroin, morphine, and codeine) is the most frequently used illegal drug in  this category. o Depressants can cause physical and psychological dependence and withdrawal resulting  in physical and psychological stress.  Stimulants o Elevate mood and produce feelings of wellbeing by stimulating the Central Nervous  System o Caffeine and nicotine are the most frequently used drugs in this category, and the most  frequently illegally used drug is cocaine. o Cocaine and amphetamines some limited medical use  Hallucinogens o Alters perceptual functions o Most frequently used hallucinogens are LSD and PCP. Both of these are produced  chemically and neither have any legitimate medical function. 2.Why is our knowledge of those who use psychoative drugs skewed towards compulsive users?  They usually are the ones that get caught using drugs the easiest 3.Why have noncompulsive drugs users received little research attention?  They are hard to find 4.What is the biological difference between legal and illegal substances?  No biological difference between legal and illegal substances. 5.Why is a 'drug free society' impossible to achieve? …. 6.What is the most common substance use disorder in the United States?  Nicotine dependence 7.Why are tobacco and alcohol 'gateway drugs'?  Considered gateway drugs because the use of these two drugs usually precedes the use of any  other recreational drug use.  "There is a fairly consistent progresion of adolescent substance use beginning with the licit drugs  alcohol and/or cigarettes, moving on to illicit substances initiating with marijuana and  progressing to cocaine and harder, more problematic drugs". 8.When can use of psychoactive chemicals be objectively labeled drug abuse?  When the user becomes dysfunctional as a result of the drug use 9.What is the drug­use continuum?  Describes the use of psychoactive chemicals, licit or illicit, when the user becomes dysfunctional  as a consequence.  The sequence goes nonuse, to experimental use, to socially endorsed use, to recreational use, then finally to compulsive use.  10.What is the tripartite model of considering the question of drugs and crime?  Created by Paul Goldstein in 1985.  Includes 3 main categories   Pharmacological o Drug offenses that are psychopharmacology induced, aka the result of a response to the  intoxicating effects of a drug  Economic­Compulsive o Crime driven by a need to buy drugs  Lifestyle o Drug use as part of a pattern of criminal behaviors not driven by or the result of drug use 11.What does this model fail to consider?  The tripartite model fails to include drug users who are drawn into the drug subculture by the  status it will give them and the excitement it can offer.  12.What has research determined about the link between drug use and non­drug crime?  Drug use has no direct causal link to crime, however similar fluctuations between substance use  and serious offending are shown over time 13.What drug is pharmacology most closely associated with violent crime?  Heroin 14.What four indicators provide information on drug use?  National Survey on Drug Use and Health, Monitoring The Future, Drug Abuse Warning  Network, and Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring 15.What are the problems or limitations of each indicator?  NSDUH o Limitations include the fact that homeless people who do not use shelters, active military  personnel, and residents of institutional group quarters, such as prisons and long term  hospitals are excluded.   MTF o High school dropouts who are associated with higher rates of drug use are not part of the  sampled universe o Chronic absentees are less likely to be surveyed o Conscious or unconscious distortions in self reporting information can bias results o New trends in drug abuse such as the use of crack might not be initially detected  becausese the survey is designed to measure only drugs that are abused at significant  levels  DAWN o Variations among individual reporters regarding standard definitions and data collection  procedures occur. o Incomplete reporting o Turnover of reporting facilities and personnel o Reporting delays of up to one year (primarily for medical examiner data)  ADAM o These statistics only provide minimum estimates of drugs use for male arrestees o Urine samples are only analyzed for 10 drugs o Central booking facilities where the samples are selected serve different areas of a city or  county, making the generalization about the wider population of arrestees unreliable 16.Why is it so difficult to determine the prevalence of heroin use?  Standard usages of household surveys are inadequate  Heroin use is rare in the general population, so only a small number of users would be included in a household survey  Difficulty locating heroin abusers because many of them are not living in a stable household  Heroin users might not accurately report their use because it is illegal 17.What is binge drinking?  Classified as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30  days


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