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Chapter 2 Notes and VOCAB

by: Shreyasi Ghosal

Chapter 2 Notes and VOCAB

Marketplace > Georgia State University > > Chapter 2 Notes and VOCAB
Shreyasi Ghosal
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shreyasi Ghosal on Monday May 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Georgia State University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 05/16/16
Ch 2 Study Guide acetylcholine (ACH)­a neurotransmitter related to  central nervous system (CNS)­the brain and the  muscle and perhaps consciousness, learning and  spinal cord. memory. cerebellum­ the hindbrain structure that plays a role action potential­ a neural impulse fired by a neuron in balance, muscle tone and coordination of motor  when it reaches ­55 mv. movements.  adrenal cortex­the outside part of the adrenal gland cerebral cortex­ the thin, wrinkled outer covering of that plays a role in the manufacture and release of  the brain, in which high­level processes, such as  androgens, and therefore influences sexual  thinking, planning, language, interpretation of  characteristics.  sensory data, and coordination of sensory and  adrenal medulla­the center part of the adrenal glandmotor information take place.  that plays a crucial role in the functioning of the  cerebral hemispheres­ the right and left sides of the  sympathetic nervous system.  brain that to some degree govern different  alcohol's effects functions in the body.  all­or­none fashion­all action potentials are equal incorpus callosum­ a thick band of neurons that  strength; once a neuron begins to fire an action  connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain. potential, it fires all the way down the axon.  dendrites­ branchlike structures on the head of  Alzheimer’s disease neurons that receive incoming signals from other  amygdala­ a part of the limbic system that plays a  neurons in the nervous system.  role in the emotions of fear and aggression.  DNA­ the chemical found in the nuclei of cells that  androgens­a class of male hormones that regulate  contains the genetic blueprint that guides  many aspects of sexuality and are found in both  development in the organism.  males and females.  dopamine­ a neurotransmitter that plays a role in  association cortex­ areas of the cortex involved in  movement, motivation, learning and attention.  the association or integration of information from  encocrine system­ a chemical system of  the motor­sensory areas of the cortex.  communication in the body that uses chemical  auditory cortex­ a region of cortex found in the  messengers, called hormones, to affect organ  temporal lobe that governs the processing of  function and behavior.  auditory information in the brain.  endocrine glands­ organs of the endocrine system  autonomic nervous system­the branch of the  that produce and release hormones into the blood.  peripheral nervous system that primarily governs  endorphins­ neurotransmitters that act as a natural  involuntary organ functioning and actions in the  painkiller.  body.  estrogens­a class of female sex hormones that  axon­ a long tail­like structure growing out of the  regulate many aspects of sexuality and are found in cell body of a neuron that carries action potentials  both males and females.  that convey information from the cell body to the  excitation­ when a neurotransmitter makes the  synapse.  postsynaptic cell more positive inside, it becomes  broca's aphasia­ a condition resulting from damage more likely to fire an action potential.  to Broca’s area of the brain that leaves the person  forebrain­ brain structures, including the limbic  unable to produce speech.  system, thalamus, hypothalamus and cortex, that  broca's area­ a region in the left frontal lobe that  govern higher­order mental processes.  plays a role in the production of speech.  frontal lobe­ cortical area directly behind the  cell body­ the part of the neuron that contains the  forehead that plays a role in thinking, planning,  nucleus and DNA. decision making, language, and motor movement.  gamma amino butyric acid (GABA)­the body’s  myelin­ the fatty ,waxy substance that insulates  chief inhibitory neurotransmitter, which plays a  portions of some neurons in the nervous system. role in regulating arousal.  myelin sheath­ the discontinuous segments of  glia cells­ brain cells that provide important supportmyelin that cover the outside of some axons in the  functions for the neurons and are involved in the  nervous system.  formation of myelin.  nervous systematic glutamate­ the chief excitatory neurotransmitter in  neurons­ information­carrying cells, use a  the brain, found at more than 50% of the synapses  sophisticated communication system to conduct  in the brain.  signals across neural networks, enabling us to  gonads­endocrine glands that directly affect sexual control our bodies.  reproduction by producing sperm or eggs.  neuroplasticity­the nervous system’s ability to  hindbrain­ the primitive part of the brain that  rewire its structures as a result of experience.  comprises the medulla, pons and cerebellum.  neuroscience hippocampus­ the part of the brain that plays a role neurotransmitters­ chemical messengers that carry  in the transfer of information from short­to long­ neural signals across the synapse.  term memory.  norepinephrine (NOR)­ neurotransmitter that plays  homeostasis­ an internal state of equilibrium in the  a role in regulating sleep, arousal and mood.  body.  occipital lobe­ cortical area at the back of the brain  hormones­chemical messengers of the endocrine  that plays a role in visual processing.  system.  parasympathetic nervous system­the branch of the  hypothalamus­ the part of the forebrain that plays a autonomic nervous system most active during times role in maintaining homeostasis in the body,  of normal functioning. involving sleep, body temperature, sexual behavior,parietal lobe­ cortical area on the top sides of the   thirst, and hunger; also the point where the nervousbrain that play role in touch and certain cognitive  system interacts with the endocrine system.             processes.  inhibition­when a neurotransmitter makes the  Parkinson's disease postsynaptic cell more negative inside, it becomes  peripheral nervous system­ all of the nervous less likely to fire an action potential.   system except the brain and the spinal cord.  ions­charged particles that play an important role inpituitary gland­the master gland of the endocrine  the firing of action potentials in the nervous  system that controls the action of all other glands in system.  the body.  limbic system­ system of structures, including the  pons­the hindbrain structure that plays a role in  amygdala and hippocampus, that govern certain  respiration, consciousness, sleep, dreaming, facial  aspects of emotion, motivation and memory.  movement, sensory processes and the transmission  medulla­ a part of the brain that controls basic, life­of neural signals from one part of the brain to  sustaining functions such as respiration, heart rate  another.  and blood pressure.  postsynaptic neuron­ the neuron that is receiving  midbrain­ brain structure that connects the  the signal at a synapse in the nervous system.  hindbrain with the forebrain.  presynaptic neuron­ the neuron that is sending the  motor cortex­ a strip of cortex at the back of the  signal that synapse in the nervous system.  frontal lobe that governs the execution of motor  refractory period­ the brief period of time after a  movement in the body.  neuron has fired an action potential during which  motor neurons­ neurons that transmit commands  the neuron is inhibited and unlikely to fire another  from the brain to the muscles of the body.  action potential.  multiple sclerosis resting potential­the potential difference that exists  in the neuron when it is resting. (­70 mv) reticular formation­ the part of the midbrain that  sympathetic nervous system­ the branch of the  regulates arousal and plays an important role in  autonomic nervous most active during times of  attention, sleep and consciousness.  danger or stress.  reuptake­ the process through which  synapse­ the connection formed between two  neurotransmitters are recycled back into the  neurons when the axon bulb of one neuron comes  presynaptic neuron.  into close proximity with the dendrite of another  schizophrenia neuron.  sensory neurons­neurons that transmit information  temporal lobe­ the cortical area directly below the  from the sense organs to the central nervous  ears that play a role in auditory processing and  system. language.  serotonin­ a neurotransmitter that plays a role in  thalamus­ the part of the forebrain that functions as  many different behaviors, including sleep, arousal,  a sensory relay station.  mood, eating and pain perception.  threshold of excitation­the potential difference at  somatic nervous system­the branch of the  which neuron will fire an action potential. (­55mv) peripheral nervous system that governs sensory andvesicle voluntary motor action in the body.  visual cortex­ a region of cortex found at the back  somatosensory cortex­ a strip of cortex at the front  of the occipital lobe that processes visual  of the parietal lobe that governs the sense of touch. information in the brain.  split brains­ a brain with its corpus callosum  wernicke's aphasia­ a condition resulting from  severed; sometimes done to control the effects of  damage to Wernicke’s area of the brain that leaves  epilepsy in people who do not respond to other  a person unable to comprehend speech.  therapies.  wernicke's area­ a region of the left temporal lobe  that plays a role in the comprehension of speech. 


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