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Chapter 3 Vocab

by: Shreyasi Ghosal

Chapter 3 Vocab

Marketplace > Georgia State University > > Chapter 3 Vocab
Shreyasi Ghosal
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Chapter 3 and VOCAB
Psychology 1101
Dr. Lamoreux
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shreyasi Ghosal on Monday May 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Lamoreux in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 05/16/16
Ch 3 Study Guide absolute threshold­the minimum intensity of a  duplicity theory­a theory that proposes that a  stimulus at which participants can identify its  combination of volley and place theory explains  presence 50% of the time.  how our brain decodes pitch.  accommodation­the process through which the lens epidermis­the outer layer of the skin. is stretched or squeezed to focus light on the retina. extrasensory perception (ESP)­(psi), the purported  amplitude ability to acquire information about the world  attention without using the known senses.  auditory nerve­the nerve that carries information  feature detection theory­ a theory of perception that from the inner ear to the brain.  proposes that we have specialized cells in the visual basilar membrane­the structure in the cochlear duct cortex, feature detectors, that fire only when they  that contains the hair cells, which convert sound  receive input that indicates we are looking at a  waves into action potentials.  particular shape, color, angle or other visual  binocular depth cues­depth cues that utilize  feature.  information from both eyes.  figure–ground­a Gestalt principle of perception that blindspot­the point where the optic nerve leaves thestates that when we perceive a stimulus, we  retina, the optic disk, where there are no rods or  visually pull the figure part of the stimulus forward  cones.  while visually pushing backward the background,  bottom­up perceptual processing­perception that is or ground, part of the stimulus.  not guided by prior knowledge or expectations.  fovea brightness frequency­a physical characteristic of energy  closure­ a Gestalt principle of perception that states defined as the number of cycles that occur in a  that when we look at a stimulus, we tend to see it asgiven unit of time.  a closed shape rather than lines.  frequency theory­a theory that proposes that our  cochlea­the curled, fluid­filled tube in the inner ear brain decodes pitch directly from the frequency at  that contains the basilar membrane.  which the hair cells of the basilar membrane are  color blindness­a condition in which a person  firing.  cannot perceive one or more colors because of  Gestalt approach­a psychological school of thought altered cone activity in the retina.    originating in Germany that proposed that the  cones­the cells of the retina that are sensitive to  whole of a perception must be understood rather  specific colors of light and send information to the  than trying to deconstruct perception into its parts.  brain concerning the colors we are seeing.  good continuation­ a Gestalt principle of perception cornea­the clear, slightly bulging outer surface of  that states that we have a preference for perceiving  the eye that both protects the eye and begins the  stimuli that seem to follow one another as a part of  focusing process. a continuing pattern.  cycle­a physical characteristic of energy defined as gustation­the sense of taste. a wave peak and the valley that immediately  hair cells­neurons that grow out of the basilar  follows it.  membrane and convert sound waves into action  dark adaptation­the process through which our eyespotentials.  adjust to dark conditions after having been exposed hue to bright light.  inner ear­the innermost portion of the ear that  decibels (dB)­the unit of measurement used to  includes the cochlea.  determined the loudness of a sound.  iris dermis­the inner layer of the skin.  just noticeable difference (jnd)­the minimum  photopigments­light­sensitive chemicals that create change in intensity of a stimulus that participants  electrical changes when they come into contact  can detect 50% of the time.  with light.  kinesthesis­the ability to sense the position of our  pitch­the psychophysical property of sound that  body parts in relation to one another and in relation corresponds to the frequency of a sound wave.  to space.  pinna lens­the part of the eye that lies behind the pupil  place theory­a theory that proposes that our brain  and focuses light rays on the retina.  decodes pitch by noticing which region of the  light adaptation­the process through which our eyesbasilar membrane is most active.  adjust to bright light after having been exposed to  proximity­a Gestalt principle of perception that  darkness.  states that we tend to group close objects together  lock­and­key theory­a theory that proposes that  during perception.  olfactory receptors are excited by odor molecules  psychophysics­the study of how the mind interprets in a way is similar to the way in which  the physical properties of stimuli.  neurotransmitters excite receptor sites.  pupil­the hole in the iris through which light enters  loudness­the psychophysical property of sound that the eye.  corresponds to the amplitude of a second wave.  retina­the structure at the back of the eyes that  middle ear­the part of the ear behind the ear drum  contains cells that convert light into neural signals.  and in front of the oval window, including the  retinal disparity­ a binocular depth cue that uses the hammer, anvil and stirrup.  difference in the images projected on the right and  monocular depth cues­ depth cues that require  left retinas to inform the brain about the distance of information from only one eye.  a stimulus.  olfaction­the sense of smell.  rods­the light sensitive cells of the retina that pick  olfactory epithelium­ a special piece of skin at the  up any type of light energy and convert it to neural  top of the nasal cavity that contains the olfactory  signals.  receptors. saturation opponent­process theory­the idea that we have  sensation dual­action cells beyond the level of the retina that  similarity­ a Gestalt principle of perception that  signal the brain when we see one of a pair of  states that we tend to group like objects together  colors.  during perception.  optic chiasm­the point in the brain where the optic  subliminal perception­when the intensity of a  nerve from the left eye crosses over the optic nerve stimulus is below the participant’s absolute  from the right eye.  threshold and the participant is not consciously  optic nerve­the structure that conveys visual  aware of the stimulus.  information away from the retina to the brain.  taste buds­the sense organs for taste that are found  outer ear­the outermost parts of the ear, including  between the papillae on the tongue.  the pinna, the auditory canal and surface of the ear  top­down perceptual processing­perception that is  drum.  guided by prior knowledge or expectations.  papillae­bumps on the tongue that many people  trichromatic theory of color vision­the idea that  mistake for taste buds.  color vision is made possible by the presence of  perception three different types of cones in the retina that  pheromones­airborne chemicals that are released  react, respectively, to red, green or blue light.  from glands and detected by the vomeronasal  vestibular sense­the sense of balance. organs in some animals and perhaps humans.  visible spectrum volley theory­a theory that proposes that our brain  decodes pitch by noticing the frequency at which  groups of hair cells on the basilar membrane are  change in the stimulus that is necessary to produce  firing.  a just noticeable difference depends on the intensity wavelength at which the stimulus is first presented.  Weber’s law­ a psychological principle that states  that for each of our five senses, the amount of 


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