Psy 130 Week 1 Notes
Psy 130 Week 1 Notes Psy 130
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leilanie Gonzalez on Monday May 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 130 at California State University - Long Beach taught by Marianne Grosvenor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Critical Thinking in Psychology (PSYC) at California State University - Long Beach.
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Date Created: 05/16/16
Psych 130 – Intro to Critical Thinking Marienne Grosvenor (pronounced grovenor) Monday, August 22, 2016 Wed 5-6 office hours Seminar course 3 tests (from lecture so take notes) 1 argument paper – discuss both sides of argument and provide evidence Confirmation bias Conclusion before evidence Memory Ignorance Perception Personal bias Physical/emotional Testimonial evidence Extraordinary claims Ambiguity Assuring expressions Emotional content Fact vs. opinions Ego Suspending judgment Independent testing Apophenia or suspicion Either/or fallacy Ad hominin fallacy Red herring Critical thinking: deliberate and skillful thinking - 2 systems of thinking o System 1: unconscious o System 2: conscious (where critical thinking comes from) - Need to be open-minded - Critical thinking requires: o Attitude o Thinking skills Attitude: are you willing to reconsider what you believe? Personal readiness to change Belief change comes from Personal psychological shift Social and cultural shift Why do people believe? - Genetics - Family influence - Peer influence - Education - Experiences - Social and cultural influences - Emotional reasons - Psychological reasons - Cognitive shortcuts (can cause errors) How our brains convince us that we’re right - Mine-is-better thinking o Def: The natural tendency to think that you are better than other people Everything we associate w/ ourselves becomes part of us un our mind (and everything is better) Beliefs Thoughts Accomplishments Possessions Children Egocentric: focused on oneself and interested in one’s own needs, interests, views Ethnocentric/group bias: excessively focused on one’s group Their group is fundamentally and completely superior to others The motivations and intentions of other groups are suspect (not to be trusted, dangerous) Eager to challenge other groups but not your own Ethnocentric people’s prejudice has an additional function o It fills their need for an out-group blame for real and imagined problems in society o In group: a group you identify w/ Race, religion, culture, gender, sexual orientation, political affiliation, team, etc o Out group: a group you don’t identify w/ - People rate themselves better than other people would o From a mental health standpoint, rating yourself as higher than you really are is an indication of normal human thought (people w/ mental illnesses are more realistic) - Confirmation bias (will be a recurring/main topic) o The tendency to seek and find confirmatory evidence in support of already existing beliefs and ignore or reinterpret disconfirming evidence o Emotional responses trump reason o Kuhn (1989) Kids and young adults presented w/ evidence that was inconsistent w/ theory they preferred Evidence was o Not acknowledged or distorted o Forgotten when asked to recall it after the experiment Wednesday, August 24, 2016 Possible topics for paper (either email or turn in hard copy and narrow down if needed) - Prison reform - Minimum wage - Transgender issues - Violent media - Health care o Suspend judgement and make sure to research both sides and be open minded Thinking Fast and Slow – Daniel Kahneman (behavioral economics – Nobel prize 2000) - Facial recognition is part of system 1 of thought o Automatic o Unconscious - Math requires system 2 of thought o Effortful system o Conscious - System 1 & 2 interact with each other o System 1 generates an impression o Once system one is proven wrong, system 2 will have a new belief System 2 can still be wrong Does not always check system 1 o System 1 can still make you see the illusion To resist the illusion, you must learn to mistrust your impression - The brain automatically assumes a temporal sequence and a causal connection btwn the two words (banana and vomit) o This is an operation of system 1 System 1 Associative memory - A vast network in which each idea is liked to many others o Different types of links Causes are linked to effects Virus – cold Things are linked to properties Limes – green Things are linked to categories Banana – fruit Priming - When one stimulus (something that incites a feeling, action or thought) unconsciously influences a response to another stimulus o Something happens on a conscious level and influences something unconsciously Words associated with older adults make us move slower If you smile things will be funnier If you are nodding your head you are more likely to accept a message Cognitive Ease (can be system 1 or 2) (thinking, memory, learning) - Can range between easy (system 1) and strained (system 2) o A reliable way to make people believe in falsehoods is frequent repetition o Familiarity is not easily distinguished from truth If you cannot remember the source of a statement, you will likely go with the sense of cognitive ease Test taking: thinking you heard a professor talk about a topic when you heard it somewhere else - How to write a persuasive message o Maximize contrast between characters and background o Use simple language o Make it memorable Summary of Systems 1 & 2 - System 1 o Operates automatically and quickly, w/ little or no effort and no sense of voluntary control o Gullible and biased to believe o Originates impressions, feelings, intuitions, and intentions o Generates surprisingly complex patterns of ideas - System 2 o Allocates attention to the effortful mental activities that demand it o In charge of doubting and unbelieving o Can be busy or lazy o Normally in low effort mode o Usually adopts the suggestions of system 1 o Impressions and intuitions can turn into beliefs and impulses turn into voluntary actions o Can overcome the impulses of system 1 - The division of labor btwn system 1 & 2 is highly efficient - Minimizes effort and optimizes performance Monday, August 29, 2016 The Biology of Belief - Patternicity: the tendency to find meaningful patterns in both meaningful and meaningless data o Pattern: event a caused event b (cat hears can being opened and assumes it’s time to eat) o Also called association learning or casual associations - Agenticity: the tendency to infuse patterns with intention and agency o Purchased plane ticket(A), traffic makes you miss plane, get later flight, meet future spouse(B) (agent: fate) Someone or something made the pattern occur Reinforcement Schedules and Superstitious Thinking - Pigeons (B. F. Skinner - father of behaviourism) o Put pigeons in a Skinner box and ran experiments o Would peck a key and receive food at either variable intervals (VI) or fixed intervals (FI) VI pigeons started repeating whatever behavior they were exhibiting btwn pressing the key and receiving food (wasn’t a real pattern) Hoping side to side Twirling These behaviors were typically repeated 5-6 times in 15 seconds A causal relationship was created btwn the behavior - Humans o Sat in a box w/ 3 levers o A point counter delivered points at VI followed by a flashing light + a buzzer o Participants started repeating whatever behaviors they were doing when they received a point Touching everything within reach Jumping up to touch the ceiling - Superstitions can be defined as accidental forms of learning o It is patternicity Error Management Theory (EMT) - We have evolved to minimize costly errors o Helps us survive and reproduce o Derived from Signal Detection Theory (SDT) Discerning real patterns from random patterns It is the way we make decisions under uncertainty Ex: Research has shown that heterosexual men over-infer that heterosexual women show more interest than they really do Signal Detection Theory (SDT) - Hit: correct (ex: think you hear a predator and there’s a predator) - Correct rejection: there is no signal where there isn’t one - False alarm: say there is a signal when there is not (Type I error) - Miss: say there is no signal when there is (Type II error) Error Management Theory (EMT) - Two errors are possible o False alarm: say there is a signal when there is not (type I error) (ex: ran away and survived) o Miss: say there is no signal when there is (type II error) (didn’t run away and were killed) - Natural selection has favored strategies that make many incorrect causal associations in order to establish those that are essential for survival and reproduction - People make incorrect associations because of our evolved need to make correct assumptions The Role of Dopamine in Patternicity - Dopamine: neurotransmitter that plays a role in motivation, reward, pleasure, addiction, and psychosis - Reinforces behaviors and beliefs - Increasing dopamine increases pattern detection o Too much dopamine: type I errors (false alarm) in which you find connections that are not really there o Too little dopamine: type II errors (miss) in which you miss connections that are real (most costly) Dopamine can cement perceived patterns into long-term memory because of increases in firing frequency and the growth of new neural connections (ex: studying 5 times a week for 20 mins versus studying once for 2 hours) Wednesday, August 31, 2016 Memory Memory is a three step process - Encoding: taking it in - Storage: hold it - Retrieval: take it out (remembering it later) Short Term Memory - Holding a small amount of information in an active state - Lasts for less than a minute - Capacity is 7 +/- 2 items (you can hold more information by chunking [by category or other system of organization used to remember things]) Working Memory - Working memory refers to the processes that are used to temporarily store, organize and manipulate information Long Term Memory (not all stored in one part of the brain [depends on perception used in memory]) - Lasts from a minute to a lifetime - Capacity is unlimited Encoding and Storage - Memories are encoded and stored with: o Electricity (synapses) o Chemicals (neurotransmitters) Neurons (insert picture) Synapses - Nerve cells in the brain (neurons) connect through synapses o Synapses are electrical pulses that leap across the gap between neurons o The firing of a synapse releases chemical messengers called neurotransmitters Each neuron can form thousands of links - The more synapses sent between neurons, the stronger the connection - The more information is repeated or used, the more likely it is to end up in long term memory - It is easier to store information about topics you already know because the new information has meaning and can be connected to information that is already known Problems with Retrieval 1. The information was never encoded (didn’t read the textbook and can’t remember information on a test) 2. You were distracted 3. There was a mismatch between retrieval cues and the encoding of information (question asked in a different way than how it was explained) Memory Distortions – Seven Sins of Memory by Schacter Types of Forgetting 1. Transience a. The decreasing accessibility th memory over time b. Ex: What did I do on my 11 birthday? 2. Absentmindedness a. Lapses of attention that result in forgetting b. Ex: Where are my car keys? 3. Blocking a. Information is present but temporarily inaccessible b. Ex: It’s on the tip of my tongue Types of Distortions 4. Misattribution a. Memories are attributed to an incorrect source b. Ex: I thought I read it in a newspaper but I actually read it in a tabloid 5. Suggestibility a. Implanted memories about things that never occurred b. Ex: leading questions produce false memories 6. Bias a. Current knowledge and beliefs distort our memories of the past b. Ex: recalling past attitudes in line w/ current ones Type of Intrusive Recollection 7. Persistence a. Unwanted recollections that we can never forget b. Ex: traumatic war memories/PTSD - Memory involves distortions, deletions, additions, and sometimes complete fabrication - Suggestion can lead to rich false memories - Confabulation: mixing fantasy with reality to such an extent that it is nearly impossible to sort them out - Just because a memory report is expressed with confidence, detail, and emotion does not mean the event actually happened
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