GSC 199 unit 3
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Hunt on Tuesday May 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GSC 199 at Murray State University taught by Dr. Kipphut in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Earth Science in Science at Murray State University.
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Date Created: 05/17/16
Unit 3: Hydrosphere Chapter 13: all Chapter 15: all Chapter 14: 434439 1. Ocean 97.2% 4. Lakes 0.01% 2. Polar Ice 2.2% 5. Atmosphere 0.001% 3. Ground Water 0.6% 6. Rivers 0.0001% Largest River: Amazon Largest Lake: Baikal The hydrosphere o Water portion of the Earth The organizing theme or focus for our discussion of the hydrosphere is the hydrologic cycle The ocean covers approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface o Earth is a water planet The exploration of the Earth’s oceans advanced rapidly during the 1950’s and 1960’s as technologies developed during WW2 were applied to scientific purposes o Sonar Waves carry energy Where does the energy in water waves come from? o Mostly from the wind What causes the wind? o Pressure differences What causes pressure differences? o Unequal heating of the Earth’s atmosphere What happens when a water wave approaches the shore? o The wave slows down due to friction with the ocean bottom o As wavelength decreases, wave height increases o The wave becomes unstable and pitches forward, or breaks The wave “breaks” o Trough of wave slows down due to friction with the ocean bottom o Crest continues forward at nearly its original speed o Crest outruns trough, the wave pitches forward and “breaks” on the shore A breaking wave deposits energy Wave refraction o The bending of a wave Waves turn “towards” the shore o Waves approaching a shore from any direction will tend to be turned parallel to the shore o Waves tend to strike the shore at only small angles, regardless of their original direction The energy deposited by breaking waves is a powerful force for reshaping the shorelines of the continents o Waves do this by moving material along the shore Some basics o Seawater consist of about 3.5% salt by weight o There are about 35 grams of salt per liter of seawater o There are billions of tins of dissolved salt in the ocean What’s the sea made of? Chlorine (Cl)* Sodium (Na) (table salt, most common) Sulfur (S) Magnesium (Mg) Calcium (Ca) Potassium (K) Carbon (C) Bromine (Br)* Boron (B)* Strontium (Sr) *most common on Earth least common on Earth World’s saltiest sea: Caspian Sea When liquid water comes in contact with the sold Earth, a chemical reaction takes place. o The rocks and minerals of the Earth dissolve through a process called chemical weathering Through the process of chemical weathering, all river, lake and ground waters acquire dissolved minerals (salt) Salt (and water) is delivered to the ocean by rivers and streams What happens to the salt and water after they reach the ocean? o Solar radiation causes ocean water to evaporate into the atmosphere The salt remains in the ocean Fresh water environments have outlets for water and salt Salt water environments have outlets for water only Over time, the ocean has become salty as it continuously receives salt from the continents, the water evaporates and the salt is left behind. Is the ocean getting saltier? o No There must be some process that is removing the salt from the ocean as fast as it is being delivered The salinity of the oceans reflects a balance between: o Delivery of salt to the ocean by rivers o Removal of salt from the ocean by microscopic plants and animals What would happen if all the polar ice melted? o The sea level would rise by approximately 80 meters How (for what purpose) is water used in the United States? o Domestic (12%): drinking, preparing food, bathing, washing clothes and dishes, flushing toilets. The major outdoor uses are for watering lawns and gardens o Industrial (5%): fabricating, processing, washing, diluting, cooling, or transporting product o Irrigation (34%): water that is applied by an irrigation system to sustain plant growth in all agricultural and horticultural practices o Thermoelectric (48%): used in generating electricity with steamdriven turbine generators Groundwater supplies most of the irrigation water in the western United States. Tides o Periodic change in the elevation of the ocean surface What causes tides? o Rotation of the Earth o Revolution of the Earth around the Sun o Revolution of the moon around the Earth o Gravitational forces between the Earth, the moon and the Sun We have to introduce the concept of the “Centrifugal Force” o An apparent force exerted outward from a rotating or revolving object. The faster the rate of rotation or revolution, the stronger the force. The laws of motion o A body at rest tends to stay at rest unless acted upon by a force (inertia) o A body in motion tends to stay in motion and will travel in a straight line unless acted upon by a force (momentum) o For every force there is an equal and opposing force Which of these laws is most helpful in understanding Centrifugal force? o A body in motion tends to stay in motion and will travel in a straight line unless acted upon by a force (momentum) 4 tidal bulges of water are created on the ocean: o 2 from the moon o 2 from the sun Which has the greater effect on tides, the sun or moon? o Since the sin is so much further from the Earth than the moon, its tide generating force is less than half that of the moon.
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