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GSC 199 unit 4

by: Sydney Hunt

GSC 199 unit 4 GSC 199

Sydney Hunt
GPA 3.48

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notes and class dicussion, highlighted was helpful on quizzes and all was on test The Solid Earth
Earth Science
Dr. Kipphut
Class Notes
EARTH, Science
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Hunt on Tuesday May 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GSC 199 at Murray State University taught by Dr. Kipphut in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Earth Science in Science at Murray State University.


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Date Created: 05/17/16
The Solid Earth  What is the universe made of? o Hydrogen o Helium  What is the Earth’s atmosphere made of? o Nitrogen o Oxygen o Argon  What is sea salt made of? o Chlorine o Sodium  What is the solid earth made of? o Iron  35% o Oxygen 30% o Silicon 15% o Magnesium 13%  Total: 93%  Is the Earth a uniform or homogeneous mass of rocks and minerals? o No  Earth scientist are quite sure that the Earths structure consists of a series of distinct  layers.  Layers of the Earth o Crust Outside o Mantle o Outer Core o Inner Core Inside  What is the crust (surface layer) of the Earth made of? o Oxygen 46% o Silicon 28% o Aluminum 8% o Iron 6 %   Total: 88%  Alumino­silicate rocks and minerals  Layers of the Earth o Crust 5­70 km o Mantle 2900 km o Outer Core 2210 km o Inner Core 1216 km  The mantle contains 82% of the Earth’s volume  Composition and structure   What else is important to know? o The interior of the Earth is HOT, possibly 6700 degrees Celsius at the Earth’s Inner Core  Summary point o The Earth’s interior is layered, hot and rich in iron   Earth scientist have firsthand knowledge only about the Earth’s Crust o So, how are they able to draw these conclusions about the interior of the Earth?  Methods or Tools  Earth’s density  Earth’s magnetic field  Earthquakes  Meteorites  Earth’s Density o Earth scientist are very certain that the average density of the Earth is about 5.5 grams per cubic centimeter  How do Earth scientist know this?  From careful measurements of the Earth’s gravitational attraction of other objects o Gravity depends on mass  The density of the Earth is 5.5 o The density of the Crust is only 2.7   Therefore, the density of the Earth’s interior must be greater than 5.5  There are only a few common chemical elements with densities greater than 5.5, and iron is  one of them  The Earth has a strong magnetic field o Only a few chemical elements have magnetic properties, and iron is one of them   The Earth’s magnetic field is constantly changing in strength and direction  Earth scientist hypothesize that some of the iron in the interior of the Earth must be in a fluid  state o Iron can be in liquid or fluid state only at very high temperatures  Earthquake  o A vibration in the Earth caused by the rapid released of energy o The vibration or shaking of the Earth associated with an earthquake is actually due to  waves   Seismic waves  We already know about waves from earlier section of this course o Waves carry energy o Waves have characteristics  Wave refraction o The bending of a wave  Analysis of how and with speed, earthquake waves travel through the Earth provide  information about  o The density of the Earth’s interior o The thickest of layers o The state (solid or liquid) of the Earth’s interior   Catastrophic o The concept that the Earth has been shaped by catastrophic events of a short­term nature  The earth is young  Earth changes quickly  James Hutton (1726­1797) founder of modern geology o Theory of the Earth  The present if the key to the past o Weak, slow acting process could, over a long period of time, produce effects just as great  as those resulting from catastrophic events  Uniformitarianism o The concept that the physical, chemical and biological laws that operate today have also  operated in the geological past  Earth is old  Earth changes slowly  Geological time o Absolute time o Relative time  Relative time is most easily determined for layers of sedimentary rocks o Law of superposition o Principle of original horizontality  o Fossil correlation  Nicolaus Steno 1638­1686 o Law of Superposition  In an unreformed sequence of sedimentary rocks, each bed is older than the one  above it, and younger than the one below it o Principle of Original Horizontality  Layers of sedimentary rocks are deposited in a horizontal position  If layers of sedimentary rocks are found to be folded or inclined, then they must  have been moved into that position after the deposition Plate Problems A) Identify which of the three types of plate boundaries is responsible for the geological features  or phenomena listed below.  B) Your answer should specifically identify which plate(s) are involved.  C) You must provide a brief explanation of how those plate movements produce the feature or  phenomenon.  The Aleutian islands in Alaska o Convergent plate motion of the Pacific plate subducting under the North American plate.  The Aleutian islands have a volcanic origin  b. The Red Sea  o Divergent plate motion of the Arabian and African plates  Mount rainier in Washington state  o Convergent plate motion of the Juan de fuca plate subducting under north American plate  Earthquakes on the island of Iceland o Divergent plate motion of the North American and Eurasian plates Note: the subducting plate is the plate that is pushed downwards when two plates converge


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