Psychopathology (PSYC4240) Day 3
Psychopathology (PSYC4240) Day 3 PSYC 4240
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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Selin Odman on Wednesday May 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4240 at University of Georgia taught by Miller in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Psychopathology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 05/18/16
PSYC 4240 -Psychopathology 5/18/16 Implications of Neuroscience for Psychopathology Relations between brain and abnormal behavior -Learning from fMRI, PET screening procedures about function and structure of brain and what roles they play in psychopath Psychosocial Influences -Can change brain functions, particularly earl experiences with regard to feelings of control and safety Therapy -Also changes brain functions Psychosocial Factors -Interact with brain structures and functions -i.e. Identical group of monkeys; 1 has control (can choose when to/what toys to play with) while 2 doesn’t have control and gets whatever group 1 chooses. -Then given a terror-causing drug -Group 2 is used to being passive, so they accept while Group 1 freaks out and become aggressive *Neurotransmitters interact with psychosocial factors (past experiences) to affect current behavior Contributions of Behavioral and Cognitive Science Conditioning and Cognitive Processes -Animal research in learning and cognition led to important insights into psychopathology -Classical conditioning only worked if it was consistent. If there was a strict association between bell and food, the reaction would be quickly forgotten. To keep reaction going longer, use a variable reinforcement schedule (Sometimes 1 ring, sometimes 5 or 12). -Learned Helplessness (Seligman) -Group of 2 dogs; both shocked but 1 can do something to stop the shock like press a lever while the other group cannot -The group that couldn’t escape previously, didn’t try to get away even when they were given the opportunity *Resembles depressed humans; not even worth trying to get away or get what I want -People who believe they have control over their life and/or situation is a sign of good health -Social Learning (Bandura) -Modeling and observational learning; prominent in substance use, aggression and interpersonal relationships -Prepared Learning -There is an evolutionary program to learn things better than others (what to be afraid of) -Food poisoning is a good example of this Cognitive Science and the Unconscious -Revolutionized knowledge of “unconscious”: “We simply seem to process and store info and act on nit without having the slightest awareness of what the information is or why we’re acting on it.” -Unconscious isn’t necessarily filled with primal lusts like Freud thought but other info that is impacting our behavior without realizing this -Ways to study implicit memories of beliefs: Stroop color test (relationship between words and colors) Role of Emotion in Psychopathology The Nature of Emotion -To elicit or evoke action (flight or fight; repair damaged relationships; continued behavior) -Emotion: motivational, short lived, temporary states -Mood: a more persistent, enduring state -Affect: momentary emotional tone that accompanies behavior Affect/emotion are to mood what weather is to climate -Intimately tied with several forms of psychopathology Harmful Side of Emotional Dysregulation Anger and hostility: strong link to heart disease due to decreased pumping efficiency for the heart. All basic disorders can be linked to psychological disorders if they occur too frequently and seemingly without cause – too strongly or lacking internal control -Depression -Mania -Panic Mood has an impact on cognition and changes our interpretation Cultural, Social and Interpersonal Factor in Psychopathology Cultural Factors -Influence form and expression of behavior -Most experience similar symptoms European American w/ Schizophrenia – describe their lives with terms related to illness Latinos w/ Schizophrenia – seen less pejorative and elicits more sympathy Gender Effects -Strong effect on psychopathology -Certain disorders have a very strong gender link (depression, eating disorder, phobias, antisocial personality disorder) *Men are higher in disease with externalizing disorder; Women are higher in diseases with internalizing disorders -Why? Gender roles or biological differences? Social Effects on Health and Behavior -Frequency and quality of social interactions are important -Related to morality, disease and psychopathology -Relationships have a protective quality against both physical and psychological disorders Give meaning to life Help us cope with physical or psychological pain Promotes healthy behavior -Perceptions of social support differs between people Life-span and Developmental Influences Over Psychopathology Life-span Developmental Perspective -Addresses developmental changes; different periods of life are associated with different challenges that may influence psychological health 20-30 years of age when most psych disorders present -Developmental stage with also influence how disorders are treated and the symptoms they present i.e. antisocial men at 20 are different from antisocial men at 50 Heterotypic continuity – different traits may manifest themselves different at different ages even though they’re still apparent (i.e ADHD) Principle of Equifinality -Concept in developmental psychopathology -Multiple path to a given outcome like psychosis CHAPTER 3 Assessing Psychological Disorders Clinical Assessment – systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors in a present individual with a possible psych disorder Diagnosis – process of determining whether the particular problem afflicting the individual meets all criteria for a psych disorder, set forth in the DSM-5 *Purpose of clinical assessment -to understand individual, to predict behavior, to plan treatment, and to evaluate treatment outcome Analogous to a funnel: start broad, multidimensional in approach, narrow to specific problem areas Three Concepts Determine the Value of Assessment Reliability – the degree to which a measure is repeatable and consistent -Consistency in measurement: across time (Test-retest reliability), rater (inter-rater reliability), items (internal consistency) [This is shown by alpha, α, a high alpha means high internal consistency] Validity – the degree to which a measure captures what it is designed to measure (i.e. does an IQ test measure intelligence?) -Content validity: does the measure captures the full range of the concept? -Convergent validity: is it related to other validated measures of the same construct? -Criterion validity: is it related to other constructs that are thought to be related? -Discriminant validity: is it unrelated to constructs it shouldn’t be related to? -Face validity: (unimportant, you may not want to even have this) is it obvious that the measure is measuring what you want? -Predictive validity: does it predict important and relevant outcomes? (i.e. does IQ predict GPA) *Construct validity: the degree to which a test measures the construct, or the psychological concept or variable at which it is aimed? ***You can’t have validity if you don’t have reliability. But reliability doesn’t mean you have validity. Reliability is a necessary but is not a sufficient aspect of validity. Standardization and Norms -Foster consistent use of techniques, to apply standards to ensure consistency of measurement -Provide population benchmarks for comparison -Examples include administration procedures, scoring and evaluation of data Domains of Assessment: The Clinical Interview and Physical Exam Clinical Interview -most common clinical assessment method -unstructured – no systematic format -semi-structured – set questions; room for departure from those questions/more consistent info gleaned; less spontaneity -fully-structured – set questions; no departure Presenting problem (when is started; precipitating events) Can ask about demographics, previous drugs taken, familiar history, drugs families have taken, ask about other problems/co-morbid conditions, daily life, education, work, developmental history, medical history, substance use, abuse history, social history/romances Mental Status Exam -Appearance and behavior: over behaviors, dress, hygiene, motor behavior, posture -Thought processes: rate of speech, continuity, content- delusions/hallucination -Mood and affect: mood and affect feeling -Intellectual functioning: rough estimate of intelligence based on vocabulary, occupation, memory, thought processes -Sensorium: awareness of surrounding, person, place and time Sometimes clients have a good understanding of their issues, but some may not. Confidentiality Can break confidentiality in cases of: Self-harm or harm to others Abuse to children and elderly If a court subpoena’s psychologist’s files Domains of Assessment: Behavioral Assessment and Observation For children and people w/ sever psycho disabilities and intellectual disabled Behavioral Assessment – used with those clients who may or may not be able to provide adequate information -Focus on here and now -Target behaviors are identified and observed as to which factors are influencing the behaviors -Use the ABCs: antecedents, behaviors, and consequences Behavioral Observation and Behavioral Assessment -Can be formal or informal -Self-monitoring vs. others observing Smoking, eating disorders, drinking -The problem of reactivity using direct observations Presence of an observer (or even one’s own self-monitoring) can change the behavior
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