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Chapter 2 Notes

by: Amy Turk

Chapter 2 Notes MUS-22121-001

Amy Turk

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About this Document

The basic components of a musical sound.
Music As A World Phenomenon
Dr. Priwan Nanongkham
Class Notes
timbre, Pitch, Rhythm, dynamics, vocal, Instrumental, organology, sach-hornbostel, aerophones, chordophone, idiophone, membranophone, electrophone, flute, reed, trumpet, tune, Octave, Scale, interval, range, Melody, drone, pitches, ornamentation, Text, setting, melismatic, syllabic, beat, tempo, accent, meter, monophony, polyphony, homophony, heterophony, form
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Turk on Friday May 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUS-22121-001 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Priwan Nanongkham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Music As A World Phenomenon in Music at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 05/20/16
WORLD MUSIC CHAPTER 2    ● A musical sound has 4 basic components  ○ timbre = quality of a musical sound that is linked to the object or person  producing the sound  ○ pitch = the tone  ○ rhythm = durations of sounds  ○ dynamics = loudness or softness of a sound    Timbre and Medium  ● timbre = color  ● vocal timbre = man or woman, bluegrass or opera  ● instrumental timbre  ○ closely related to instrument construction  ○ organology = the study of musical instruments  ■ five basic categories  ● strings  ● winds  ● brass  ● percussians  ● keyboards  ● Sach­Hornbostel System = standard classification system for musical instruments  ○ categories  ■ aerophones  ■ chordophones  ■ idiophones  ■ membranophones  ■ electrophones  ○ an instrument is classified according to what part of it vibrates to produce the  sound  ○ each of the primary categories have several subcategories    Aerophones  ● require air to produce sound  ● flutes, reeds, trumpets  ● flutes = columns of air is set in vibration when the air is split on an edge  ● reeds = one or more small pieces of material (cane, bamboo, metal) that vibrate when  air is blown over or through them into a tube  ● trumpets = require the performer to vibrate his lips    Chordophones  ● has one or more strings stretched between two points ­ sound is produced when a string  vibrates  ● lutes, zithers, and harps      Idiophones  ● vibrate to produce sound  ● rattles and bells  ● almost anything can be considered an idiophone = bottles to slamming doors to change  in your pocket  ● 3 categories  ○ plucked  ○ struck  ○ shaken  ● plucked = music box  ● struck = gong, bell  ● shaken = rattle      Membranophones  ● has a vibrating membrane  ● drums  ○ smaller drums usually have a higher, tighter sound      Pitch  ● a tone’s specific frequency level, measured in Hertz  ● definite pitches are necessary to produce melody and harmony  ● indefinite pitches (handclaps or rattles) are most often used in rhythmic capacity  ● the term pitch refers specifically to definite pitches      Tuning System  ● all the pitches common to a musical tradition  ● culturally determined  ○ our ears become accustomed to the tuning system of the music we hear on a  regular basis  ● when we hear an unfamiliar tuning system, some of its pitches may sound out of tune  because we have been culturally conditioned  ● octave = the basis for most tuning systems  ○ produced when the frequency level is either doubled or halved  ● pitches that are an octave apart are considered to be the same pitch even though they  have different frequencies      Scale  ● consists of a set of pitches used in particular performances      Interval  ● the distance between two pitches  ● wide or narrow  ○ a wide interval (ex. A to G) is one with a large difference in frequencies  ● the interval between the bottom and top pitches of an octave is wider than the interval  distance of any two pitches within the octave      Range  ● the span of pitches a given instrument or voice is capable of producing  ● wide or narrow as well as high or low  ● instruments with wide ranges are typically physically larger than those with narrow ones      Melody  ● an organized succession of pitches forming a musical idea  ● rhythm is always a necessary component  ● can be described in terms of its melodic contour ­ its shape  ○ descending melodic contour = when the pitches descend from high to low  ○ typically drawn as a graph representing the direction of the melody  ● drone pitches = a continuous or repeated sound  ○ horizontal lines  ● chords are vertical lines      Ornamentation  ● embellishments or decorations that are applied to a melody  ○ modify the original musical idea  ○ often done when performers improvise on a melody  ■ improvisation = the art of creating music as it is performed  ● can consist of just a few added notes or a long series of tones meant to display a  performer’s skills or make the basic melody more interesting      Text Setting  ● the rhythmic relationship of words to melody  ○ limited to vocal performance  ● syllabic = if each syllable of a text corresponds to one pitch  ● melismatic = if several pitches are sounded to a single syllable of text    ● rhythm = the lengths (or durations) of sounds as patterns in time      Beat and Tempo  ● beat = regular pulsation of sound  ○ ex. your heartbeat ­ pulsates at a relatively fixed rate  ● tempo = the rate, or speed  ○ tempo of your heartbeat increases when you work out  ● musical tempo can be described as relatively fast or slow in relation to a basic beat    Accent or Meter  ● accent = an emphasized beat  ○ used to indicate the underlying rhythmic structure of a musical performance  ■ the structure is based on a system of grouping beats into regular units =  meters  ● meters are either duple or triple  ○ duple = when groups of beats are divided by two  ○ triple = when groups of beats are divided by three  ● the opposite of metered music is free rhythm  ○ has no regular pulse      Rhythmic Density  ● the relative quantity of notes between periodic accents or within a specific unit of time  ● long sustained tones in free rhythm with little melodic activity have a low rhythmic density  in contrast to music with a steady, quick tempo and numerous notes of short duration  ● if the music sounds busy, the rhythmic density is generally high (thick)  ○ the rhythmic density for a relaxed tempo is thin      Phonic Structure  ● relationship between different sounds in a given piece  ● monophony = music with a single melodic line  ○ performers play the same pitches with the same rhythms  ● polyphony = multiple lines of music played simultaneously  ○ 3 types  ■ homophony  ■ independent polyphony  ■ heterophony  ● homophony = multiple lines of music expressing the same idea in the same meter  ○ harmonic = the use of chords ­ combinations of 3 or more tones that are blended  together to produce harmony  ● independent polyphony = two or more lines of music expressing independent musical  ideas  ○ each line is played in relation to the others without a single line dominating  ● heterophony = simultaneous variations of the same line of music  ○ requires more than one performer, each performing the same melody, but  differently ­ in terms of pitch or rhythm or both  ● dynamics = the volume of a musical sound  ○ crescendo and decrescendo    Form  ● the overall pattern or structure of a piece of music as it unfolds in time  ○ gives music a predictable or coherent shape 


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