Chapter 2 Notes
Chapter 2 Notes MUS-22121-001
Popular in Music As A World Phenomenon
Popular in Music
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Turk on Friday May 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUS-22121-001 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Priwan Nanongkham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Music As A World Phenomenon in Music at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 05/20/16
WORLD MUSIC CHAPTER 2 ● A musical sound has 4 basic components ○ timbre = quality of a musical sound that is linked to the object or person producing the sound ○ pitch = the tone ○ rhythm = durations of sounds ○ dynamics = loudness or softness of a sound Timbre and Medium ● timbre = color ● vocal timbre = man or woman, bluegrass or opera ● instrumental timbre ○ closely related to instrument construction ○ organology = the study of musical instruments ■ five basic categories ● strings ● winds ● brass ● percussians ● keyboards ● SachHornbostel System = standard classification system for musical instruments ○ categories ■ aerophones ■ chordophones ■ idiophones ■ membranophones ■ electrophones ○ an instrument is classified according to what part of it vibrates to produce the sound ○ each of the primary categories have several subcategories Aerophones ● require air to produce sound ● flutes, reeds, trumpets ● flutes = columns of air is set in vibration when the air is split on an edge ● reeds = one or more small pieces of material (cane, bamboo, metal) that vibrate when air is blown over or through them into a tube ● trumpets = require the performer to vibrate his lips Chordophones ● has one or more strings stretched between two points sound is produced when a string vibrates ● lutes, zithers, and harps Idiophones ● vibrate to produce sound ● rattles and bells ● almost anything can be considered an idiophone = bottles to slamming doors to change in your pocket ● 3 categories ○ plucked ○ struck ○ shaken ● plucked = music box ● struck = gong, bell ● shaken = rattle Membranophones ● has a vibrating membrane ● drums ○ smaller drums usually have a higher, tighter sound Pitch ● a tone’s specific frequency level, measured in Hertz ● definite pitches are necessary to produce melody and harmony ● indefinite pitches (handclaps or rattles) are most often used in rhythmic capacity ● the term pitch refers specifically to definite pitches Tuning System ● all the pitches common to a musical tradition ● culturally determined ○ our ears become accustomed to the tuning system of the music we hear on a regular basis ● when we hear an unfamiliar tuning system, some of its pitches may sound out of tune because we have been culturally conditioned ● octave = the basis for most tuning systems ○ produced when the frequency level is either doubled or halved ● pitches that are an octave apart are considered to be the same pitch even though they have different frequencies Scale ● consists of a set of pitches used in particular performances Interval ● the distance between two pitches ● wide or narrow ○ a wide interval (ex. A to G) is one with a large difference in frequencies ● the interval between the bottom and top pitches of an octave is wider than the interval distance of any two pitches within the octave Range ● the span of pitches a given instrument or voice is capable of producing ● wide or narrow as well as high or low ● instruments with wide ranges are typically physically larger than those with narrow ones Melody ● an organized succession of pitches forming a musical idea ● rhythm is always a necessary component ● can be described in terms of its melodic contour its shape ○ descending melodic contour = when the pitches descend from high to low ○ typically drawn as a graph representing the direction of the melody ● drone pitches = a continuous or repeated sound ○ horizontal lines ● chords are vertical lines Ornamentation ● embellishments or decorations that are applied to a melody ○ modify the original musical idea ○ often done when performers improvise on a melody ■ improvisation = the art of creating music as it is performed ● can consist of just a few added notes or a long series of tones meant to display a performer’s skills or make the basic melody more interesting Text Setting ● the rhythmic relationship of words to melody ○ limited to vocal performance ● syllabic = if each syllable of a text corresponds to one pitch ● melismatic = if several pitches are sounded to a single syllable of text ● rhythm = the lengths (or durations) of sounds as patterns in time Beat and Tempo ● beat = regular pulsation of sound ○ ex. your heartbeat pulsates at a relatively fixed rate ● tempo = the rate, or speed ○ tempo of your heartbeat increases when you work out ● musical tempo can be described as relatively fast or slow in relation to a basic beat Accent or Meter ● accent = an emphasized beat ○ used to indicate the underlying rhythmic structure of a musical performance ■ the structure is based on a system of grouping beats into regular units = meters ● meters are either duple or triple ○ duple = when groups of beats are divided by two ○ triple = when groups of beats are divided by three ● the opposite of metered music is free rhythm ○ has no regular pulse Rhythmic Density ● the relative quantity of notes between periodic accents or within a specific unit of time ● long sustained tones in free rhythm with little melodic activity have a low rhythmic density in contrast to music with a steady, quick tempo and numerous notes of short duration ● if the music sounds busy, the rhythmic density is generally high (thick) ○ the rhythmic density for a relaxed tempo is thin Phonic Structure ● relationship between different sounds in a given piece ● monophony = music with a single melodic line ○ performers play the same pitches with the same rhythms ● polyphony = multiple lines of music played simultaneously ○ 3 types ■ homophony ■ independent polyphony ■ heterophony ● homophony = multiple lines of music expressing the same idea in the same meter ○ harmonic = the use of chords combinations of 3 or more tones that are blended together to produce harmony ● independent polyphony = two or more lines of music expressing independent musical ideas ○ each line is played in relation to the others without a single line dominating ● heterophony = simultaneous variations of the same line of music ○ requires more than one performer, each performing the same melody, but differently in terms of pitch or rhythm or both ● dynamics = the volume of a musical sound ○ crescendo and decrescendo Form ● the overall pattern or structure of a piece of music as it unfolds in time ○ gives music a predictable or coherent shape
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