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Chapter 4 Notes

by: Amy Turk

Chapter 4 Notes MUS-22121-001

Amy Turk

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About this Document

Music As A World Phenomenon
Dr. Priwan Nanongkham
Class Notes
papua, new, guinea, susap, timbre, lamellophone, mouth, Harp, kundu, singsongs, clan, dances, hawaii, hula, steel, Guitar, ukulele, portamento, kilu, pahu, mele, kiribati
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Turk on Friday May 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUS-22121-001 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Priwan Nanongkham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Music As A World Phenomenon in Music at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 05/20/16
Oceania - Chapter 4 ● Papua New Guinea ○ farmers practiced subsistence farming: they grew food and raised livestock for personal use rather than for commerce ○ English is the official language due to years of British influence ○ wise array of traditional music and dance ○ susap = a bamboo mouth harp ■ twangy timbre ■ lamellophone ■ plucks an extension that’s attached either to the frame or to the lamella ■ the fundamental pitch of the mouth harp does not change ● the manipulation of overtones resonating in the mouth can produce recognizable melodic features, usually more closely related to speech than song ■ mouth harp often acts as a speech surrogate = performers use it to imitate speech patterns and phonemes in order to create the illusion of speech in a musical context ● often considered to be speech that is disguised ■ found in traditional courting rituals ● considered to possess love-controlling magic that men can use to attract a woman’s affections ○ by using the instrument as a speech surrogate, the man is able to say things to the woman that might otherwise be inappropriate ● functions to maintain social relationships between young men and women in small communities ● kundu = most common instrument ○ small goblet-shaped drum ● singsongs: most common musical performance ○ clan dances and music throughout the day and night ○ foster cultural exchange between groups that otherwise have little contact with each other ○ body paint and face masks Hawaii ● hula ● steel guitar: “sliding tone” ○ sliding a metal bar along the strings without pressing them down to the fretboard ○ allows the performer to sound all the frequencies between two standard pitches ● ukulele = accompanies hula dancing ○ strings: G, C, E, A ● Hawaiian drum dance chant: a voice, one or two drums, and accompanying dances ○ apply vibrato to shorter tones too ○ text setting is syllabic = only one pitch per syllable ○ portamento = a smooth, uninterrupted glide from one pitch to another ■ with all the frequencies between the two pitches being sounded ○ pahu: single headed cylindrical membranophone from Hawaii that stands vertically on a carved footed base ○ kilu = small drum made from a coconut shell with a fish skin face ■ sometimes attached to the performer’s leg with a strap ● Hawaiian music today heavily influenced by European musical traditions ● Hawaiian drum-dance chant is considered free from outside influence ○ mele = poetry in songs ■ mele pule = prayers dedicated to traditional gods ● hula pahu = dance songs with drums Kiribati ● modern social life revolves around church actitivities ● group song: bino (sitting dance) ○ vocal performance is often a communal activity ○ has a childlike tonal quality ○ handclaps ○ during the metered section, the voices follow a call-and-response pattern ○ text setting is mostly syllabic ○ a whistle is used to signal the choir to close the performance ● music and dance were important symbols of social identity ● communities sang in communal meeting houses = mannebas, the night before battle, in order to protect warriors or weaken enemies ● song was considered a vital link to ancestral spirits and supernatural powers associated with natural elements ● battles between rival clans frequently took the form of music and dance contests ○ could put the dancers in an ecstatic state in which the power of the spirits would seem to work through the performers ■ restrictions were placed by the colonial government and christian missionaries


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