Chapter 8 Notes
Chapter 8 Notes MUS-22121-001
Popular in Music As A World Phenomenon
Popular in Music
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Turk on Friday May 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUS-22121-001 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Priwan Nanongkham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Music As A World Phenomenon in Music at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 05/20/16
The Middle East ● ethnocentric ● the boundaries of this region are less clear cut than those of most other areas ● maghrib = north Africa ○ “the time or place of the sunset” ● mashriq = Egypt ○ “the time or place of the sunrise” ○ the east ● predominantly muslim ● arabic = the holy language of Islam ○ a musical tradition whose history is intricately linked with the spread of language ● the “cradle of civilization” ● most of Europe’s instruments can be traced to Arab sources Islam & the Arabic World ● 23% of the world’s population = a profound influence on culture Islamic Adhan, “Call to Prayer” ● vocalist performs a single melodic line ● in an Islamic context, this would not be considered singing, rather holy speech ● uttered five times daily ● the purpose of the call is to communicate a specific message ● melodically improvised to a certain degree ● free rhythm ● words are in classical Arabic ● affirms that Muhammad is the prophet of God ● sunni = the mainstream of majority branch of Islam ● shia = the minority branch of Islam that follows Muhammad’s cousin, Ali ○ are the majority in Iran & Iraq ● sufi = the mystical branch of Islam ○ seek union with God through trance ● the call to prayer serves as a reminder to make a pilgrimmage to Mecca ● most branches of Islam view music as overly sensual ○ the call to prayer is considered by muslims to be non-music Arabic Taqasim for Ud & Buzuq ● Ud = fretless, plucked pear-shaped lute that is found in Arabic music traditions ● unmetered ● melodic line seems to spin out spontaneously ● middle Eastern improvisation = an opportunity for the performer to compose, within strict boundaries, while playing ○ maqam = Arabic/Turkish mode or system of rules and expectations for composition and improvisation ● 24 pitches in an octave, with each measuring 50 cents (a way to measure sound intervals) ○ a semitone or quarter tone ● 2 of these quartertones equal one western semitone ● a performance can shift from one maquam to another ● when one musician is prominent, the other strums lightly ○ any resulting simultaneously of notes is incidental ● improvisations may occur alone or as part of a longer suite that also includes fixed compositions in meter ● an unmetered movement featuring improvisation is called a taqasim when performed by instrumentalists ○ only the most skilled can play taqasim ● islam frowns on realistic representation in art, to avoid the temptation toward idol worship Iran ● the size of Alaska ● most of the population is shia muslim ○ associated with the lower economic classes Dastgan for Santur & Voice ● Iranian classical music often has a melancholy mood ● vocal timbre is heartfelt ● begins with a stringed instrument playing a free melody in an improvisatory manner ● chordophone ○ a Persian santaur = a hammered zither ● persian music (like Arabic music) is based on an elaborate modal system ○ dastgah = officially 12, each with 7 pitches ○ a vast body of composed melodic phrases that amount to short compositions = gushen ■ each dastgah is learned by memorizing a variable number of these short compositions that can be strung together to create a longer & more complete composition ● groups of gushen are organized around specific pitches of the dastgah, allowing the player to progress from the lowest note to higher pitches ● a complete performance of a dastgah usually unfolds in several sections ○ daramad = the opening movement ■ free rhythm ■ lower-pitched ○ tahrir = free rhythm, emphasizing melismatic melodic work ● the art comes in how the gushen are joined to each other and in how they are subtly changed and elaborated ● specific gushen generally sound different from one performance to another ● value rhythmically free improvisations Egypt ● little is known about the sound of egyptian music until long after contact with Islam Takht Instrumental Ensemble ● instrumental groups play fixed compositions ● takht = typical ensemble ○ 3 to 5 players ○ most are chordophones, but at least one aerophone ● qanun = plucked zither that resembles an autoharp ● the melodic instruments perform the same melody but with slight variations, resulting in a slightly heterophonic structure ● arabic drumming is highly organized ○ in closed cycles of beats ● rhythmic modes ● work with the Arab modal system called maqam ● instruments are mostly chordophones and aerophones ● traditional ensembles play heterophonically and modernized ensembles are usually highly arranged, with varied orchestration and occasional harmony ● also accompanies dance ○ belly dance ○ dance in egypt is closely associated with religious expression ● music has the power to heal and bring people closer to God ○ the goal is to bring listeners into a state of ecstasy Sufism ● the mystical branch of Islam ● engage in activities that are prohibited by other Muslims ● a person can become one with Allah through the elimination of the ego Sufi Dhikr Ceremony ● often upbeat with an undertone of seriousness ● sound is thought to be a vital link between the spiritual and physical realms ● Jalal Al-Din Muhammad Rumi = sufi saint of islamic mysticism known for his poems and as the founder of the Mevlevi religious order ● enter a trance-like state in which they become spiritually ecstatic Judaism ● Klezmer = a European-derived dance music commonly associated with Jewish celebrations Jewish Shofar & Liturgical Cantillation ● 8 pitches ● no regular meter = “speech rhythm” ● generally syllabic ● an oral tradition ● tabernacle singers (cantors) construct melodies from a body of traditional modes and melodic formulas that can be freely interpreted ● cantillation = a kind of heightened speech that is between speaking and singing ● careful attention to sacred law ● torah = the first five books of the Bible ● sacred writings are read in heightened speech ● service = liturgical rituals that can be held several times a day ● the use of musical instruments is generally avoided, but there are exceptions ● shofar = a ritual trumpet blown to mark divisions in a service
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