Motivating The Workplace
Motivating The Workplace BUS 10123-002
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Turk on Friday May 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BUS 10123-002 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Diane DeRubertis in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Exploring Business in Business at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 05/20/16
MOTIVATING THE WORKPLACE ● motivation = an inner drive that directs a person’s behavior toward goals ● explains why people do what they do ● effectively motivating employees helps them engage in their work ● morale = an employee’s attitude toward his or her job, employer, and colleagues ○ contributes to high levels of productivity ● intrinsic reward = personal satisfaction and enjoyment that you feel from attaining a goal ● extrinsic rewards = benefits/recognition that you receive from someone else Classical Theory of Motivation ● money is the sole motivator for workers ● to improve productivity, managers should specialize ● incentives would motivate employees ● more and more corporations are tying pay to performance to motivate The Hawthorne Studies ● productivity increased regardless of the physical conditions ● social and psychological factors could significantly affect productivity and morale ● marked the beginning of a concern for human relations in the workplace ● elton mayo = social theorist and industrial psychologist ● employees work harder if… ○ they receive added attention at work ○ thought that managers cared about their welfare ○ supervisors paid special attention to them Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ● physiological needs = most basic and first needs to be satisfied ○ essential for living ○ water, food, shelter, clothing ○ humans devote all their efforts to satisfying physiological needs until they’re met ● security needs = protection from physical and economic harm ● social needs = love, companionship, friendship ● esteem needs = respect ○ self-respect ○ respect from others ○ not as easily satisfied ● self-actualization needs = maximizing your potential Alderfer’s Erg Theory ● three basic needs influence behavior ○ existence ○ relatedness ○ growth ● existence needs = desire for physiologic and materialistic well-being ● growth needs = desire to grow as a human being and to use one’s abilities to their fullest potential ● relatedness needs = desire to have meaningful relationships with significant needs Maslow vs Alderfer ● Maslow’s theory = lower order needs have to be satisfied before higher level needs emerge ○ works independently ● Alderfer’s theory = lower-level needs do not have to be met to pursue higher level needs ○ these needs can be pursued simultaneously Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory ● focuses on the job and the environment where work is done ● hygiene factors ○ adequate wages ○ comfortable and safe working conditions ○ fair company policies ○ job security ■ don’t necessarily motivate employees to excel, but their absence may be a potential source of dissatisfaction ● motivational factors ○ achievement ○ recognition ○ involvement ○ responsibility ○ advancement ○ absence may not result in dissatisfaction but their presence is likely to motivate employees to excel Theory X ● traditional views ● assume workers generally dislike work and must be forced to do their jobs ● most workers prefer to be directed and avoid responsibility ● maintain tight control ● constant supervision ● motivate through fear ● focuses on physiological and security needs and ignores higher needs Theory Y ● humanistic view ● assumes that workers like to work ● stresses employee participation in all aspects of company decision making ● managers maintain less control ● address all needs Theory Z ● stresses employee participation in all aspects of company decision making ● managers and workers share responsibility ● employment is long term and even lifelong McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory ● three needs are major motives determining people’s behavior in the workplace ○ achievement ○ affiliation ○ power ● achievement = desire to accomplish something difficult ● affiliation = ability to spend more time maintaining social relationships, joining groups, and wanting to be loved ● power = desire to influence, coach, teach, or encourage others to achieve Equity Theory ● how much people are willing to contribute to an organization depends on their assessment of the fairness (equity) of the rewards they will receive Expectancy Theory ● motivation depends not only on how much a person wants something but also on how likely they are to get it Goal Setting Theory ● employees with a clear line of sight of understanding the organization’s strategic goals and knowing what actions they need to take, both individually and a team of members ● specific high goals lead to greater performances Behavior Modification ● explaining consequences to change behavior ● developed by B.F. Skinner ● 2 types of consequences: ○ rewards ○ punishments Job Rotation ● allows employees to move from one job to another in an effort to relieve boredom ● job rotation does not totally eliminate boredom Job Enlargement ● the addition of more tasks to a job instead of treating each task as separate ● developed to overcome boredom associated with specialization ● more successful in satisfaction than job rotation ● job enrichment = incorporates motivational factors into a job ○ gives workers more control and authority ○ requires careful planning and execution Flextime ● program that allows employees to choose their starting and ending times ○ as long as they are at work during a specified core period ● increase in healthy employee behaviors Compressed Workweek ● a 4 day period (or shorter) where an employee works 40 hours ● reduces the company’s operating expenses because its hours of operation are reduced ● more days off to spend with family ● job sharing = when two people do one job ○ gives both people the opportunity to work as well as time to fulfill other obligations ● motivation affects all relationships within an organization Job Design ● applying motivational theory to how to divide the organization’s work among its employees to increase satisfaction and performance ○ job simplification ○ job enlargement ○ job enrichment Human Resource Management ● strategic focus ● driven by metrics to improve corporate performance ● coaches and counsels managers to resolve employee issues ● consists of planned activities managers perform to plan for, attract, develop and retain an effective work-force ● establish the mission and the vision ● recruit and select people ● purpose = get optimal work performance ● strategic management = aligning the organization’s goals, policies, and actions for a competitive edge ● strategic human resource management = executing planned activities to achieve a competitive edge through the effective use of human capital HR Planning ● developing a comprehensive strategy around understanding the current employee needs and predicting future employee needs ● demand forecasts = determining how many and what type of people are needed ● supply of labor = how many and what types of employees the organization will actually have ● human resource inventory = report listing your organizations employees by name, education, training, languages, and other important info ● recruitment = process of locating and attracting qualified applicants for jobs open in the organization ● selection = process of collecting info about applicants and using info to make hiring decisions ○ application ○ interviewing ○ testing ○ reference checking ● orientation and onboarding = helping the newcomer fit smoothly into the job and the organization ● organizational culture and norms ● specific departments and functions ● support systems ● training = teaching workers how to either do their current jobs or do them better ● development = preparing workers for the types of jobs that will be needed in the future ● continuous cycle of improving employee performance through ○ goal setting ○ feedback and coaching ○ rewards and reinforcement Performance Appraisal ● generally difficult for managers ● monitor performance ● identify employee strengths and areas of improvement ● provide feedback to employees ● appraisals ○ objective ○ quantitative ○ focused on performance ● turnover = when employees quit or get fired and must be replaced by new employees ○ can also take the happy form of a promotion or transfer ● promotion = an advancement to a higher-level job with increased authority, responsibility, and pay ● transfer = a move to another job within the company at essentially the same level and wage ● demotion = a move downward with less authority and pay ● reduction in force = planned reduction of a large number of groups or employees ● outplacement = process of helping people who have been dismissed from the company regain employment elsewhere ● wage/salary survey = study that tells a company how much compensation comparable firms are paying for specific jobs the firms have in common ● direct compensation = money ● indirect = benefit and recognition programs Minimum Wage ● 7.25 an hour ● washington state = 9.32 ● san francisco = 10.74 Indirect Compensation ● insurance ● sick leave ● pension plans ● child and elder care ● employee assistance programs ● nontraditional perks: ○ on site child care ○ onsite gyms ○ food service ○ hair salons ○ egg freezing for female employees Labor Unions ● employee organizations formed to deal with employers for achieving better pay, hours, and working conditions ● union workers make about 200 more per week than non-union workers
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