SC 113 BIO 152
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samuel Croteau on Friday May 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 152 at Massachusetts College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences taught by Dr. Demasi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Biology of the organism in Biology at Massachusetts College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences.
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Date Created: 05/20/16
9/5/15 Things you will learn about: Metabolism and energy • Trans fats – what are they, and why are they bad for you? • Does it ma▯er what kind of ‘fuel’ your body burns? • Can we engineer tools to make energy from the sun, like Biology 113 plants do? Fall 2015 – Sec▯on 3 (MWF) • Biofuels – promise and problems Professor Cassandra Saitow Sept 2, 2015 Lefavour Hall/Beatley Library, Room L305 1 2 Things you will learn about: Things you will learn about: DNA, diﬀeren▯a▯on, reproduc▯on Disease and medical technology • Why don’t iden▯cal twins get • What are GMOs? Are they the same diseases as they age? good or evil (or both)? • Chemicals you are exposed to can change your DNA structure • Ar▯ﬁcial body parts – what – and how DNA gets passed on problems can we ﬁx, and how? to your kids Limits and promise of new technology • Every cell in your body has the Oxford Performance Materials same DNA in it – so how do • Why no one is working on a some become nerves, muscle, cure for cancer skin, etc? • How 3D prin▯ng is changing • Stem cells – promise and medicine controversy 3 4 Scien▯ﬁc inquiry is cyclical Scien▯ﬁc learning is cyclical I recognize I remember hearing about that word! mitosis… Evolu▯on Reproduc▯on I could teach my Hey, I wonder how DNA muta▯ons DNA replica▯on chemotherapy li▯le brother about mitosis aﬀects mitosis? 5 6 1 9/5/15 Materials Course info • Mastering Biology (Pearson) – Online study materials, videos, homework assignments, prac▯ce • Me: Cassandra Saitow, PhD quizzes • email@example.com – MB code comes with textbook from • Oﬃce hours: Tues 12:30-‐1:45, Weds 10-‐12 or bookstore, or buy online ($60) at h▯p:// by appointment www.pearsonmylabandmastering.c • Oﬃce rm 245, science building om (book author is Reece et al) – COURSE ID: B11301F2015 Lab: Print manual from Moodle site – print it all at once and put in a binder 7 8 Addi▯onal readings My goals for you • List posted on Moodle • Become comfortable using a lot of new • Referenced by week of study (to sync all vocabulary sec▯ons) • Required readings (e.g. fair game on tests/ • Understand fundamental biological processes quizzes) marked with * • Others are for your reference, if you are • Learn to think cri▯cally about scien▯ﬁc interested in a par▯cular topic concepts and ethical implica▯ons 9 10 Study ▯ps But you will have to do some work • Read the book! Before class works best. • Evalua▯on based on exams, lab, homework and group assignments • Come to class, stay awake, and put your phone down • Classes will be part lecture, part discussion, some case • Focus on powerpoints when studying for exams – those studies, small group work, etc are the most important points • Class par▯cipa▯on is strongly encouraged! • Form study groups and discuss concepts out loud with other people • Lab is a cri▯cal component! Show up, do the work, engage with the material • Go to study groups, review sessions and oﬃce hours – Labs begin week of Sept 14 for extra help 11 12 2 9/5/15 Grading Presenta▯ons • Groups of approx. 5-‐8 students • General interest topics, I will assign/suggest • ~10 mins You MUST pass lab to pass the course! • Begin October-‐ish 13 14 Many diﬀerent subsets of biology… Biology: The study of life • Ecology • Main concepts: • Evolu▯on – What is life? • Gene▯cs – How does life on Earth change? – How do we learn about life? • Medicine • Cellular biology • Pathology We will discuss a li▯le of everything 15 in this course 16 Characteris▯cs of life: Scien▯ﬁc Inquiry 1. Organiza▯on • These are BIG ques▯ons – complicated! • Biochemical level (lots next class) – Anything that happens in a body is pre▯y much • Cellular level insanely complex • Tissue level • Ecological level (habitats) • Need to ﬁnd objec▯ve and simple ways to inves▯gate complex ques▯ons • “Emergent property”: a characteris▯c or ability that is only possible with increased organiza▯on 17 18 3 9/5/15 Figure 1.4 Prokaryotic cell Cells are organized into ▯ssues, ▯ssues DNA Eukaryotic cell (no nucleus) Membrane into bodies Membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus (membrane- enclosed) Membrane- DNA (throughout enclosed organelles nucleus) 1 µm 19 20 Figure 1.5 Characteris▯cs of life: Characteris▯cs of life: 2. Reproduc▯on 3. Energy exchange and interac▯on with 25 µm environment • Energy harvested from the sun and stored in plants – plants are producers At the organismal level • Plants eaten and converted to chemical energy by animal – animals are consumers At the cellular level • Chemical components just recycled through the system – closed system 21 22 Figure 1.9 ENERGY FLOW Characteris▯cs of life: Chemicals 4. Response to s▯muli organisms that eat the plants. • Plants grow towards light energy Chemical Heat energy (phototropism) up chemicalse from the soil and air. • Cat raises hair and Decomposers Chemicals return hisses when scared chemicals to the soil. 23 24 4 9/5/15 Body responds to high sugar by releasing insulin STIMULUS: High blood glucose level Characteris▯cs of living things Insulin-producing 1. Organized chemical reac▯ons cell in pancreas 1. Cellular organiza▯on Insulin 2. Organ systems Circulation throughout 2. Reproduc▯on body via k blood f 3. Exchange chemicals with the environment ea N 1. Take in food, water Liver and muscle cells 2. Excrete waste 4. Response to s▯muli RESPONSE: Glucose uptake by liver and muscle cells 25 26 Figure 15.1-1 Prehistoric Earth: 3 BYO How did life on Earth begin? 27 28 Early evolu▯onary leaps What is evolu▯on? • Survival of the Hadean Archean Proterozoic Phanerozoic eon eon eon eon ﬁ▯est – Those individuals Colonization of land best suited to the Animals environment will Multicellular eukaryotes survive to Single-celled eukaryotes reproduce Origin Atmospheric oxygen of Earth Prokaryotes 4.6 4 3 2 1 Present • Not goal directed Billions of years ago • Based on random muta▯ons 29 30 Figure 15.4-0 5 9/5/15 Figure 1.18-1 Figure 1.18-2 Evolu▯on – Camouﬂage Example Evolu▯on – Camouﬂage Example 1 Population 1 Population 2 Elimination with varied with varied of individuals inherited inherited with certain traits traits traits 31 32 Figure 1.18-3 Figure 1.18-4 Evolu▯on – Camouﬂage Example Evolu▯on – Camouﬂage Example 1 Population 2 Elimination 3 Reproduction 1 Population 2 Elimination 3 Reproduction 4 Increasing with varied of individuals of survivors with varied of individuals of survivors frequency inherited with certain inherited with certain of traits that traits traits traits traits enhance survival 33 34 What is The Scien▯ﬁc Scien▯ﬁc method Method? • Scien▯ﬁc knowledge comes from experimental data and observa▯ons • Experimental procedure is important to understand • Controls 35 36 6 9/5/15 Urey-‐Miller experiment video Framing a hypothesis -‐Basic chemical • A statement that can either be supported or structures/molecules rejected -‐Photosynthesis -‐> Oxygen – NOT ‘proven’ -‐Amino acids and • Must be testable other building blocks of life • Leads to more ques▯ons…and eventually another hypothesis 37 38 Famous origin of life expt: Miller–Urey experiment Ques▯ons about Urey-‐Miller expt • What was the hypothesis? • How was it tested? • What would have been your next ques▯on? • What were the controls? • Flaws? 39 40 Classiﬁca▯on of life on Earth Classiﬁca▯on of Life: Domains SPECIES GENUS FAMILY ORDER CLASS PHYLUM KINGDOM DOMAIN Why classify? Ursus How would you group all life on the planet? 1. Body Structure? Ursidae 2. Cellular structure? Carnivora 3. Food? 4. Habitat? Ursus americanus Mammalia 5. Size? Chordata 6. Gene▯cs? Animalia 41 Eukarya 42 Figure 1.12 7 9/5/15 Figure 1.13 Phylogenic Tree of Life Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea µ 2 2 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia 100 µm Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Fungi Protists 43 44 NOAA.gov Common chemical composi▯on and reac▯ons link all life forms • Same basic elements: (Ch. 2) – Carbon – Nitrogen – Oxygen, – Hydrogen • Same building blocks and biomolecules: (Ch. 3) – Amino acids -‐> proteins – Nucleic acids -‐> DNA, RNA – Fa▯y acids -‐> TAGs, lipids – Monosaccharides -‐> Polysaccharides (sugars) 45 8
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