Psychopathology (PSYC 4240) Day 5
Psychopathology (PSYC 4240) Day 5 PSYC 4240
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Selin Odman on Friday May 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4240 at University of Georgia taught by Miller in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Psychopathology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 05/20/16
Psychopathology (PSYC 4240) 5/20/16 Research by Correlation Nature of Correlation -Statistical relation between 2 or more variables -No IV is manipulated Correlation and Causation -Problem of directionality (i.e. break-ups and depression; substance use and impulsivity) -Correlation =/= causation Nature of Correlation and Strength of Association -Range from -1.0 to 1.0 -Negative and positive correlation Why use correlational studies? -True experiments are hard to conduct -We can’t really assign people to certain groups (smoking vs. not smoking; have a psych disorder, don’t have one) Epidemiological Research -Study incidence, prevalence, and course of disorders; searching for clues Incidence: # of new cases during a specified time Prevalence: # of people with a disorder at any given time Distribution: more or less common in certain populations -What factors are associated with frequency of disorders (i.e. gender, SES, certain behaviors) -Goal of epidemiological work is to find clues for the etiology Research by Experiment Nature of Experimental Research -Manipulation of IV (i.e. therapy or not; meds or not; levels of exercise) -Random assignment -Attempt to establish a causal relationship (since you’ve accounted for confounds) -Great internal validity Group Experimental Designs -Nature and purpose of control groups Needed to show that IV is responsible for changes Should be nearly identical to treatment group -Placebo and double-blind controls Instead of a sugar pill, you may want to give them drugs that give them the same side-effects of the treatment group Trying to rule out that the treatment effect isn’t due to the expectation that you’ll get better Easy to do with medications, but not with psychotherapy treatment Double-blind: both researcher and participants are unaware of their group assignment Comparative Treatment Designs Type of group design; next step after showing the treatment is better than the placebo Compare different forms of treatment in similar persons (i.e. psychotherapy vs. medication vs. combination) Addresses treatment outcome; did a change occur? -Dismantling studies (break studies into parts and remove or focus only on certain aspects); Necessary to figure out the “active” components of the treatment Single-Case Experimental Designs Nature of Single Subject Design -Person is both control group and experimental group - “Systematic study of individuals under a variety of conditions” -Rigorous study of single cases; manipulations of experimental conditions and time -Repeated measurements needs to be done; not just once before and once after treatment -Good internal validity/ bad external validity Types of Single-Subject Design -Withdrawal Design (ABAB Design): -Baseline (depression) -Treatment (i.e. Zoloft); Assess depression -Withdrawal (stop medication); Assess depression Assets: better sense if treatment caused changes Liability: remove a treatment that might be helpful, risk relapse, it’s not possible to “withdraw” psychological treatments like therapy -Multiple Baseline Design: Not starting/stopping treatment Starting treatment at different times at different settings (home vs. school) or behaviors (hitting, talking back, doing homework) Assets: Don’t need to withdraw treatment Liabilities: Can’t really make conclusions about general population based on a small number of people (low external validity) Genetic Research Strategies Cannot make conclusions about individuals; only the population Behavioral Genetics -Interaction among genes, experience and behavior -Phenotype (observable characteristics/behavior) vs. Genotype (genetic make-up of an individual) Down syndrome: phenotype (mental retardation, slanted eyes, thick st tongue); genotype (extra 21 chromosome) Strategies Used in Genetic Research -Family studies: examine behavioral pattern/emotional traits in family members Problems: cannot distinguish between environment and genetic factors -Adoptee studies: allows separation of environmental from genetic contributions Are children more like their adoptive parents or biological parents? Number of studies looking at crime via adoption studies: showed a heritable component (more for property crime than violent crime) -Twin studies: evaluation psychopathology in fraternal vs identical twins More representative of the general population than adoptee studies Risk of developing schizophrenia Monozygotic twins: 48% Dizygotic twins: 17% *This method requires the “equal environment” assumption is correct. We assume that MZ twins are not treated any more similarly than DZ twins. Most results agree with this concept -Genetic linkage and association studies: locate sites of defective genes Very difficult to find replicable samples Studying Behavior Over Time Rationale and Overview: How does the problem or behavior change over time? -If not stable (i.e. normal response to environment and likely to “go away” soon) and doctors may choose not to intervene -Alternatively, if viewed as “too stable”, they may not try to intervene or change the behavior -Studying behavior over time can show insight into what factors lead to the manifestation of a disorder (i.e. “risk factors”) Important in prevention research -Study of risk factors for development of disorder: biological, psychological, environmental) Important in treatment research -What help individuals recover and how long they feel better and what happens when they stop using the treatment: psychoeducation, emotional support, medication, behavioral activation Time-Based Research Strategies Cross-sectional designs: take a sample of the population across age groups and compare on a certain characteristic -i.e. Substance Use Cohorts: participants in each age group Members of cohort should be the same age, same historical time and exposed to similar experiences Problems include differences across ages may be due to both age and dissimilar experiences (substance use and 1960s); it tells us little about how problems develop; can tell us that two variables are related but not causal information Cohort effect: confounding effect of age and experience is a major limitation of cross-sectional designs Longitudinal designs: follow one group over time and assess changes -No cohort effect problem Gets us closer to understanding causality (order of relationship; depression leads to fewer friends vs. fewer friends leading to depression) Problems: take a long time to do, high attrition rates, expensive and time- intensive, study topic may not be relevant by the time the study is done Cross-generational effect: your data may not generalize other groups whose experiences are different Studying Behavior Across Cultures Value of Cross-Cultural Research -Studying abnormal behavior from various cultures tells us about the origins and treatment of disorders from different perspectives. -Overcoming ethnocentric research Predictors of substance use in White adolescents not same for Black adolescents Issues in Cross Cultural Research -Clarify how psychopathology manifests in different ethnic groups; terminology may be different across cultures Nonwestern cultures tend to emphasize somatic aspects of depression (i.e. changes in appetites, sleep or energy) -Different thresholds for abnormal behavior -Treatment exists within cultural context (i.e. not making eye contact, responding differently) The Nature of Programmatic Research Components of a Research Program -No one study will answer the question -Studies proceed asking slightly different questions, using slightly different procedures -Conducted in stages, often involving replication -Scientific knowledge typically build incrementally (not like the media/movies/shows makes it seem like) -Replication is very important
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