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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Scombordi on Friday May 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POSC150012 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Angela Wolfe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to American Government and Politics in Political Science at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 05/20/16
posc150 5/20/16 10:49 PM Political science • Comparative politics • American government • International relations • Political theory • Public policy Defining politics • Who gets what when, where, and how via arguing, debating and cooperating Relationship between (American) politics and the following? • Winners and losers o There are winners and losers in politics, always. there are limited amounts of positions of authority, differences in policies that are not agreed on • Power o Getting people to do what you want them to do, not illicit, legal, political power should not be coercive • Authority o They have the right to represent us via the process of politics • Legitimacy o Lawful • Institutions o Where Political systems • Democracy (more rights and freedom) o Republic § We believe in electing people to represent us o Direct o Liberal • Monarchy o Absolute (UAE, Qatar) o Constitutional • Authoritarian (more control by the government) o Theocracy (Iran) o Dictatorship o Communism o Totalitarianism An example of direct democracy – referendums Howard Laswell’s definition of politics • Who gets what when, where, and how • Economic systems 1. Capitalist i. Laissez-Faire vs. regulated ii. Procedural guarantees iii. (one of the most fundamental rights: property rights) 2. Socialist i. Command economy ii. Substantive guarantees iii. (communism is the most extreme version of socialism) 3. Social democracy i. “social welfare state” Who is an American citizen? • Jus soli o Born here • Jus sanguinis o By blood • Naturalization What does it mean to be a citizen? • Rights o Speech o Education o … • Responsibilities o Taxes o Follow the law o Jury duty o … Political culture • The views and attitude people have regarding their political system • Comes from history, family, friends, socialization, books, music, school, media, through a process of learning and our own experiences • Purpose? Helps understand the types of policies that will be received well, predict how people will feel and act Cultural explanations • Weber and The Protestant Ethic o And this time trying to portray how protestant values shaped rapid capitalist development o Catholics were fatalists (you’re going to die and go to heaven so focus on that) o Protestants promoted the drive to work on earth to create well-being • Almond and Verba and The Civic Culture o What kind of cultures make democracies most stable • Huntington and Clash of Civilizations o There is going to be a lot of chaos with the progression of democracy…? • Fukuyama and End of History o We’re pretty stable, people are going to keep moving toward democracy American Political Culture • Individualism • Diversity and multiculturalism o Melting pot • Democracy • Liberty • Equality (vis a vis procedural guarantees) o We expect the law to treat us equally • Skipped two classes French and Indian war to initiate revolutionary war Taxation: series of acts • The sugar act… Boston tea party • Something…? The intolerable acts • (second) quartering act 1774 • boston port bill 1774 • administration of justice act 74 • Massachusetts government act 74 • Quebec act 74 The enlightenment and the American revolution • Key ideas o Social contract o Natural rights o Revolution o Reason o John Locke (1632-1704) § Government would protect us and give us natural rights Road to revolution • First continental congress (1774) • Battles of Lexington and concord (April 19 1775) • Second continental congress (may 5 1775) • Thomas Paine and common sense (January 1776) o read • Declaration of independence (1776 July 4) • Articles of confederation (1777) • Treaty of Paris (1783) Post-revolutionary America: “critical period” (1781-1789) • Conditions o Economic crisis o Political paralysis • Assets and liabilities o Large continent with broad dispersal of property o Growing population of black slaves in contrast to republican ideals The constitutional convention: 1787 (federalists and anti federalists) • Major debates/disagreements o Power of the new government o Representation o Slavery o Bill of rights • Outcomes o Federal system o The great compromise o Three-fifths compromise o No law on banning slave trade until 1808 § Also no taxation on exports § Ch1-6 for first exam (read thru book) Successful adoption of Constitution? • Slavery postponed • Ratification didn’t have to be unanimous • Impact of the Federalist Papers Homework due Wednesday & exam next week Three branches of government • Legislative o Creates o Bicameral leg. Branch o “The Necessary and Proper Clause” § congress can do anything necessary and proper to carry out its duties o Senate vs. House of Rep § Term limits ú Senate (2) • 6 yrs • must be 30 yrs old and be 9 the US for 9 yrs ú House (population) • 2 yrs (no term limit?) • 25 yrs old 7 yrs in US § Qualifications ú senate • must be 30 yrs old and be 9 the US for 9 yrs ú House • 25 yrs old 7 yrs in US § Electoral process ú Majority vote ú 1/3 up for election every year • Executive o Executes through bureaucracy o Qualifications § 35 § 14 yrs o Term limit § 4 yrs 2 terms o Electoral process via electoral college § 2 delegates for senate then more for pop § usually vote for majority but do not have to by law § have to win 270 to win o Powers and duties § Veto legislation § Executive orders § Head of army § Treaties § • Judicial o Duties as outlined by the constitution § Judicial review and Marbury vs. Madison (1803) o “Least threatening branch?” § duties are only to judge if laws are broken o suppose to be above politics so they don’t have term limits • Separation of powers vs. fusion of powers • Separation (presidential) o Voters ---elect-à exect & legis • Fusion (parliamentary) o Voters -à legislature à executive o Prime minister is part of parliament o Prime minister stays in office as long as he has the majority of support o Easier for prime minister to leave office due to vote of no confidence o Frequent elections o They don’t have a constitution o House of commons/lords • Grid law causes for less productivity • Checks and balances • Allows for policing federalism Didn’t take notes first class after first exam The Civil Rights Movement • Inspiration for Civil Rights movement? • What ere their strategies/activities? • Were they successful and how? De jure v de facto discrimination (by law, these amendments gave African Americans’ the rights that they should have had from the beginning) (institutionalized discrimination v practiced discrimination ) • Brown v board of education (1954) • Civil rights bill (1964) • Voting rights act (1965) th • 24 amendment (1964) o prohibit poll tax Affirmative Action “You do not take a person who, for years, has been hobbled by chains and liberate him,…… • executive order 11246 • Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) o ? • Grutter v. Bolinger (2003) o Race may be considered as a factor as long as it’s one of others • Schuette v. Coalition of Defend Affirmative Action (2014) o Michigan is allowed to ban affirmative action in public universities The legal Status of Native Americans • “contracts among nations” from 1778-1871 o treaties with indigenous tribes to gain more land by giving them what they wanted • Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution o Congress has the power to regulate trade among the tribes with the tribes (gives authority over tribes) • “domestic dependent nations” in Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia (1831) o indigenous trusting government to take care of the lands, government provides a lot of money • “trust relationship” and Bureau of Indian Affairs o ? • “federally recognized tribe” o have to apply for it o about 500 • “tribal sovereignty” o do have significant sovereignty, but congress has most power • “reservation” Native Americans: Current Issues • Living conditions on reservations o o o • Socioeconomic Challenges: Health Problems (NCAI) o o o • Socioeconomic Challenges: Public Safety and Security (NCAI) o o Native Americans: US politics • The National Congress of American Indians (1944) o o • The American Indian Movement (1968) o o Radical; protests o The Native American “Black Panthers” • Native American Rights Fund (1970) o Key goals: to ensure US government lives up to legal obligations o Legal and technical assistance o Cobell v. Salazar Native American Gaming • Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 • Pros & Cons o Create wealth (+) o Financial independence (+) o Facilitating bad lifestyle, taking away from the culture, unfair, untaxed,… (only very few casinos make a lot of money from it and it mostly goes back into the community) • Annual revenues versus reality The Fight for Equality: Conclusions • Equality of opportunity Having free and fair elections is the hallmark of democracy Voting and elections in the US • Intentions? Gives power to the states • Elections serve to create policy, legitimizes democracy, an outlet for disgust or agreement with government • Old people tend to vote… Regulating the Electorate • Definition: the process of setting the rules that define who can vote and who difficult or easy it will be to cast a ballot in an election Incumbent advantage • Only 5 haven’t been reelected • George h.w. to Clinton • Carter to Reagan • Ford to Carter • Prospective voting: read and educated on issues, then make choice Retrospective voting: personal experiences The presidential campaign: step one • “invisible primary” • FEC and “exploratory committee” • Official announcement Step two: announcing candidacy Step three: Primaries and Caucuses • Primaries versus caucuses? o Open versus closed • Objectives: what do candidates want to win? o Delegates • How are delegates awarded? o Based on proportion of vote • Criticisms: front-loading and representative The General Election Campaign • Strategies o Swing voters (swing states) o Battleground states o Oppo research o Negative ads o The role of money § Soft v hard The Media: The Fourth Estate Skipped a class Ways media has evolved over last century: • Newspapers have declined due to new media, tv and radio still used o They’re online o Tv: quantity vs quality • Social media more prevalent among young people and candidates and middle aged; not always positive; highly diverse Pro’s and con’s of evolution and consolidation: • Instantaneous information, real time • Diversity in channels and viewpoints • More participatory • Increase potential for censorship • Commercial bias Are Americans typically better informed now: What role do journalists play? • Gatekeepers • Disseminators • Interpretive “they use everything of the pig but the squeal” • Upton Sinclair o Investigators • Public mobilizers • Civic: public take and more active role • Citizen: people witnessing and reporting (social media, posting shit) How does media influence the public? • Agenda setting o Telling us what’s important and what to worry about • Priming o Taking a story and highlighting an issue within • Framing o Way story is presented • Persuasion Skipped class Friday, late Monday Public opinion Education and tolerance: more tolerance with more education More religious tends to be more conservative or republican Younger people tend to be more liberal Gender gap in political ideology (violence is less supported by women and women tend to be more democratic but become more conservative as they grow older) How is public opinion measured? • Public opinion poll: scientific efforts to estimate what an entire group thinks about an issue by asking a smaller sample of the group of its opinion • Goal of public opinion is to achieve equal probability • A “good” poll depends upon the selection of random sample, which will prevent sample bias Two main challenges • Getting a good sample o Margin of error o + or – 3 or less “good margin of error o 95% confidence level • asking the right questions o problems with Bias, one-sided Statements, filtering o examples: “suicide” v. “end lives”; “welfare” v. “assistance to poor” A checklist for an accurate poll 1. A random sample: were the people in the survey randomly selected such that any member of the population had an equal chance being selected? 2. Sample size: how many people do researchers need for an accurate survey (larger the better) 3. Sample error: the larger the sample size, the smaller the sample error 4. Question wording: did the way the questions were worded influence the results? 5. Reliable respondents: respondents often five socially acceptable answers rather than truthful ones Accuracy of the Gallup Poll Types of polls -straw polls -opinion polls v. deliberative opinion poll -benchmark poll -tracking poll -exit poll -online poll -push poll rd (I think these are all for the 3 test) skipped a few classes 3rd exam topics (political institutions that define our systems) presidency bureaucracy congress judiciary presidential impeachment process is intended to remove sitting presidents for (treason, bribery, and high crimes and misdemeanors) Senate finds them guilty or innocent The president’s cabinet is composed of (appointees heading each of the fifteen major departments in the executive branch) In the US, treaties are negotiated by the president and require (two-thirds approval from the Senate) (he could also use executive agreements which do not need executive agreements) The Executive Office of the President was formed to (provide expert advice, serve the interests of the president, and supple information) Roosevelt served more than two terms, Reagan oldest elected president, Andrew Johnson only president to be impeached What is bureaucracy? Organization with hierarchal structure Bureaucracy: any organization characterized by hierarchical structure • Characteristic: hierarchy, merit, specialization, and explicit rules • Objective: neutral competence Spoils System • Patronage: the system or practice in which public offices are at the disposal of the victorious party for its own purposes • Pendleton Act (1883) • Hatch Act (1939) o Put some political limitations on people in the federal bureaucracy (can’t fund a person running or run for office) o (Chicago) Functions of the American Federal Bureaucracy 1) Serving essential government functions • 2) Responding to changing national needs • New needs (environmental protection program) 3) Responding to the demands of clientele groups • veterans program Organization of the Federal Bureaucracy • Fifteen departments • Independent agencies • Independent regulatory boards and commissions o Regulates and restrains behavior, federal reserve, securities and exchange commission, federal election commission, environmental protection agency, o Purpose of these agencies is to regulate public safety • Government corporations o Public transportation, public broadcasting, …. Roles of the federal bureaucracy • Bureaucracy as administrators o Green cards • Bureaucracy as rule maker (have to make rules in consultation with other groups) o Bureaucratic discretion o federal registrar (where rules are published) • bureaucracy as judge (also enforce the rules) About 2 million federal employees, it has stayed the same, however over history it’s gotten larger, major events to cause bureaucracy to get larger great depression and new deal and world war 2 and cold war and linden Johnson fighting poverty and war on terror and department of homeland security We spend the most on defense (37% of 1.7 trillion) Bureaucracies tend to adopt bureaucratic culture • Transformations take place (what happens?) • The Bureaucracy • Relationship with president o Role of cabinet secretaries • Relationship with congress o Congressional oversight • Relationships with the judiciary o Deference to bureaucracy • Relationship with citizens o FOIA (freedom of information act); Sunshine Laws (bureaucratic process need to be open to public); Privacy Act (something) EPA created after silent spring Energy policy ANWR Arctic national wildlife refuge 5/20/16 10:49 PM 5/20/16 10:49 PM
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