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Ch.11 Biology 101 Vocabulary

by: Shekel Smith

Ch.11 Biology 101 Vocabulary 101

Marketplace > Liberty University > Biology > 101 > Ch 11 Biology 101 Vocabulary
Shekel Smith


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Ch.11 Biology 101 Vocabulary
Biology 101
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shekel Smith on Saturday May 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at Liberty University taught by in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Biology 101 in Biology at Liberty University.


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Date Created: 05/21/16
CH. 11 Biology 101 Vocabulary 1.  Active transport  The movement of dissolved substances across a membrane with or against a concentration  gradient; utilizes cellular energy to insure transport.    2. Allo­lactose  A chemically altered form of lactose often present intracellularly where it can bind to the lac  operon repressor protein turning on synthesis of its structural genes.   3. Auxin  A class of plant hormones, particular members of which are involved in stimulation of growth as  in stem elongation or giving dominance to apical bud on a stem.   4. Cerebral hemisphere  Right and left halves of the cerebrum, the largest portion of the mammalian brain.   5.  Circadian   Refers to any process or characteristic that respects a 24­hour cycle or period.   6. Core temperature  The operating temperature of structures deep within the body of the organism.   7. Dialect   A form of a language that has its own variations of sounds and terms not found in other forms of  the same language.   8.  Electrical potential   The inherent energy in positively charged particles; equal to the work it would take to push the  particles there from a position with zero potential.   9. Expansin   A category of enzymes that break cross linking covalent bonds between cellulose fibers,  weakening the overall structure of which they are a part.   10. Fibril   A strand of several cellulose polymer molecules interwoven around each other for added  strength.   11. Homeostasis   Maintenance of stable conditions chemically and physically within the body; the result of highly  regulated and coordinated activities of the body's system.   12. Hormone   A chemical substance released by a cell or gland that signals another cell or organ of the body to  respond in some way.   13. Hormone receptor   Usually a membrane­bound protein whose surface conformation enables it to both bind to and  respond to a hormonal signal molecule.   14. Hydroxyl radical   The neutral form of the hydroxide ion; highly reactive and destructive of the chemical integrity  of reduced biological molecules.   15. Hypothalamus   A ventral brain region containing the suprachiasmatic nuclei; it helps to regulate many aspects of the internal fluid environment of the body as well as core temperature wakefulness.   16. Indole­3­acetic acid (IAA)  A particular auxin that causes plant cells to elongate as part of the general growth process of the  plant.   17. Instinctive (of behavior)   Inborn tendency to behave in a manner that is genetically informed for a given species.   18. Lactase  A protein enzyme capable of degrading the sugar lactose into its monosaccharides glucose and  galactose before being catabolized for energy generation.   19.Learned behavior   Those responses that are conditioned by experience or in some cases by study.   20. Leptin   A protein hormone that helps to control energy intake into the body by regulating the appetite for food.   21. Melatonin   A hormone secreted by the pineal gland in response to darkness; helps entrain the body's  biological rhythms to a light­dark cycle.   22. Nectar   A sweet liquid secreted by specialized cells of a plant; used to attract insects; a major source of  honey.   23. Operator  A segment of DNA at the front end of an operon; regulatory proteins conditionally bind the  operator influencing whether or not transcription of the operon occurs.   24. Operon   In DNA, a sequence of adjacent structural genes whose products are usually functionally related  together with an upstream operator region of DNA to which regulatory proteins specifically  bind.   25. Optic chiasm   A structure behind the eyes in a vertebrae in which the nerve tracts from the eyes meet and  interweave before entering the brain.   26. Optic nerve   A set of neurons that carry form, color, motion and light intensity information from the retina of  the eye to the brain.   27. Ornithologist   A scientist who studies birds.  28. Photoreceptor   A large organic molecule, usually a protein, whose structure is altered by the influx of photons.  The altered structure results in a signal used by a cell or organ to respond properly to the  presence of light.    29. Phototropism   The tendency of a plant to grow toward a light source such as the sun.   30. Pineal gland   An endocrine gland at the center of the brain; secretes the hormone melatonin.   31. Polar transport   The unidirectional transport of a substance through a series of cells such as from the apex of a  plant shoot to its root system.   32. Promoter   A sequence of DNA base pairs just upstream from a gene or set of genes to be transcribed; RNA  polymerase selectively binds to this sequence.   33. Repressor   A regulatory protein that by binding to the operator sequence of DNA within an operon prohibits transcription of the genes within the operon.   34. Retina   The sensory surface within the back of the eyes where light waves initiate sensory nerve  impulses.    35.  Seasonal affective disorder   A mood alteration in wintertime characterized by a depressive state; reduced amounts of daylight may be causative.   36. Structural gene   A gene that codes for a protein product that contributes directly to the functional activities of the  cell; a gene whose product has no regulatory role.   37. Suprachiasmatic nuclei  Small portions of brain issue just above the optic chiasma that transmit signals associated with  the maintenance of circadian rhythms.   38. Thyroid gland   An endocrine gland in the cervical region of the body whose hormones regulate basal  metabolism rate and calcium balance within the body's tissues.    39. Thyroxin   A hormonal product of the thyroid gland that regulates metabolic rate in the tissues.  


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