Notes for Test 1
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophie Walker on Saturday May 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Rel 1310 at Baylor University taught by Dr. Coker in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 05/21/16
Textual Criticism Friday, May 20, 2016 5:51 PM -Problemsdiscovered:John Mill: Oxford Uni 1707 -looked at 100 Greek manuscripts (MS)/found 33,000textual "variations" -Problem Intensifies in 1800s -more MSS found with more variats -57,000Greek MS variants -10,000Latin, Coptic, Syria MS variants -somewherebtwn 200,000-400,000variations exist -need to find out what Bible (B) said -which MS were closest to original Vocab: -scribes: ppl who copy/madecopies (which lead to MS variations) -papyrus: paper made out of reeds -oldest B MS found written on papyrus -very fragile; doesn't last very long -oldest one found date bac to 100 AD but so dissolved can't really read at all -vellum: sheep skin made into paper -lasts long time -codex: collectionof vellum parchments (but super expensive!) -started showing up 400-600AD -unicals: type of font when write everything IN ALL CAPS -minuscules: writing in all lower-caseand in cursive --> MS's are either unicals or minucsules (so really hard to read either way) How Mistakes Were Made Friday, May 20, 2016 6:00 PM -mistakes lead to variations -MS very hard to read/copy -lectio continua: no spaces btwn words/sentences;used to save space (so super hard to read) -lack of punctuation: wasn't invented until Medieval times -ie, periods weren't used until 800 AD -Truly I saw unto you this day you shall be with in in paradise -Truly I saw unto you, this day you shall be with in in paradise Truly I saw unto you this day, you shall be with in in paradise --> all different interpretations just because of commaplacement -interpretations:translations are all interpreted differently -translator/scribe:can change whateverhe wants -may change womento men names -picks what he thinks fits his faith best What Kind of Mistakes Were Made Friday, May 20, 2016 6:05 PM Unintentional v Intentional Unintentional: -of the eye: -confusion of letters -ϴ or O -transportation of letters: -copy single letter twice -copy double letter only once -accidentally skip a line -etc. -of the ear: -lotacism:weight vs wait vs wate (if not literate/justsound it out) -of judgement: -sometimesthere are notes in the marines --> should I take those into consideration? If so, how? Intentional: -make an improvement -correct poor grammar -correct mistakes -Mark's Old Testament quote from 1:2: Mark said came from Isaiah which came from prophets -scribes said this was a historical mistake so they fixed it -harmonize accounts: -Lord's Prayer:Luke/Matthew'swere difference --> some scribes made them the same -avoid theological/doctrineproblems: -Jesus getting left behind when he was 12 -"Your father/I have been worried" --> don't want ppl to think that "father" is referring to God instead of Joseph --> "We have been worried" -some of the intentions are pretty insignificant changes -significant changes: -story of Jesus saving womenbeing stoned was added around 1100/1200 -Trinity: wasn't in MS of John until after 1400s -last chapter of Mark: later edition added post-resurrectionstuff -spotting textual variants in B: -footnotesexplain that some MS have other wordings (there are significant disagreementsabout this) -critical apparatus: the footnotes(sorry, idk what this really means in my notes; I just have it written down Rules of Textual Criticism Friday, May 20, 2016 6:56 PM 1. Lectio Defficilior:the more difficult it is to read, the more original of a source it probably is -most of the time, when scribes copied they made it into an easier version -Mark 1:41 -"Jesus… and feeling pity": pity = splanguistheis (Latin word I think) "Jesus… and feeling anger" : anger = orgisthesis -anger is more difficult to describe and understand; why would Jesus be angry? So scribe uses pity instead 2. Lectio Brevia: the shorter it is, the more original of a source it probably is -scribes probably added to the MS (each scribe may add more and more) -ending of Mark: May/womenfind Jesus gone/theyleave and tell know one--> this is a short but more difficult ending to understand I honestly don't know what Form means; it could be short for formal, or forms, but may not be. Sorry…. Form Criticism Friday, May 20, 2016 7:10 PM -recognize the different types of writing in the B -try to figure out author's intentions in writing the text -different genres relate to diff themes/key points -understanding genre is key to properly understanding the text -sometimes very unclear; sometimes not -helps us understand author's intent in writing the piece -genres usually have keywords to help recognize (Once upon a time…, A guy walks into a bar…,) -genres of same kind fit together/have particular meaning Jonah Friday, May 20, 2016 7:15 PM -what elements of the Jonah suggest its genre wasn't historical/biographical --> a lot of evidence in the text that verifies it wasn't a historical piece writing -location/geographyare inconsistent -lots of irony/satire(Jonah was a prophet but not very faithful) -hyperboles (exaggerations): very, 3 days long walk across Nineva, ppl/animals all convert, etc -time line off -narrative -McKenzie thinks Jonah is a satire (laugh at protagonist at first. But at the end realize that the pro/reader are similar) -main issues of Jonah/audience: racist -didn't like Ninevites; didn't want them to be saved --> Israelites are like this to the other kingdoms around them/don'tact the way God wanted them to -historicity:notice history isn't right -challenge historically accurate events -if Jonah not true --> what about the other books? -doubting it b/c how its written, not what is it (whale swallows/spitsour Jonah) -CS Lewis: -on B interpretations/genre -other books: pinned to historical situations -Jonah isn't -doesn't doubt: inspirations, miracles, how written -don't think whole B is fictional -his belief of B: convey word of God/answer questions God wants you to know the answer to; what the author wanted to tell you, not what you wanted to know -some are meant to be historical, but some aren't Hebrew Scriptures Friday, May 20, 2016 7:22 PM -also known as Older Testament,Hebrew Scripture of Bible -if say "Old," may be taken as outdated -Tanak: -both Old/New T: collection of books -Bible: means collection of books -Old/Hebrew B have same books but look different -Hebrew: 24 Books; Old T: 39 books -Hebrew doesn't split King into Kings 1/2; other things like this make Heb shorter) -collection of books written over time; designated as being part of the canon -canon: books that are at a standard so they are authoritative (chose for B) -hard choice for what books to be in B -don't really know about this process/howbooks chosen/finalized -2 traditions for O Test: -MasoreticText (MT): -Heb version of scripture (written in Heb originally) -Septuagint (The LXX): about 70 scholars translated this text -Greek translation of Heb scripture -MT and LXX are not identical -LXX is larger than MT -different versions of Christian B: -Catholic version:DeuterocanonicalBooks -also known as 2nd Canon -these books are important but not the most important; Cath kept them in Old T) -1500:Martin Luther comesaround/translates --> doesn't like these books that mush so puts them in their own sections: Apocrypha -eventually, this book goes away completely -Dead Sea Scrolls: -discovered 1947in some caves in Qumran -provided MS of scriptures that were 1000's years older than those previous found -Pentateuch:(Torah) -first 5 books of the Old T (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus,Numbers, Deuteronomy) -Tanak: 3 sections of the B 1. Torah: 1st 5 Books -teachings/instructions 2. Nevi'im: (prophet) -historical account of Israel -individual prophets: brought pronouncementsof God -history through theologicallense 3. Ketuvim:The Writings -diverse collection of works (short stories, visions, wisdom, literature, poetry, etc) -Council of Jannia: could be Jamnia or maybe I spelt it wrong) -some rabbis cometogether/pickbooks in the Canon -scholars believe: this was a process that went on over time not just in one council meeting -based off of Tanak; look at each section/seeif these book fit -was an evolutionof books Genesis: Creation/the Flood Friday, May 20, 2016 7:41 PM Genesis 1: Creation Day 1: light Day 2: sky/sea Day 3: dry land/vegetation Day 4: sun/moon/stars Day 5: birds/fish Day 6: animals (land); humanity Day 7: REST (Sabbath) -speaks --> it is creates -judgement (everything is good); creative;purpose/order;humans = his image -"our": royal we; trinity; angels -humans are special; there is a special/unique relationship with us -God punishes ppl bc they fuck shit up -makes the rest of humanity a lot more difficult Genesis 2: Creation 1. Earth/heavens 2. Waters/streams 3. Moon 4. Vegetation -- garden 5. Animals 6. Woman -wait wuuuut, this is diff than Gen 1 Cosmology: how we see the universe/world -Gen 1: world surrounded by watery chaos; inside of a bubble life can exist -solid barrier (raquia) tames these waters/createda place to thrice -Egypt: Shu: god of air; upholds Nut: the sky goodess; Geb: earth-god reclines underneath ANE: Ancient Near East -pre-19 cent: Gen stories are unique -19 cent: find all these other ancient text stories similar to Genesis -Enuna Elish (18 cent BC): "Babylonian Gen" -2 gods/bodies of water (Apsu/Tiama) Ea: the offspring of the gods kills Apsu so other gods can live -Marduk: destroysTiama so he can becomes leader of gods -decides to create ppl to take care of gods (uses the dome as the word) -basically Marduk is the supreme god -Prometheus/Pandora(7 BC): -Pro gives fre to humans (even though they weren't supposed to accept gift from gods) -punishment: sends Pandora and she opens the box --> sin begins -Deluge Tablet (17 BC): -ancient flood wipes out everyoneexcept Ziusudra -builds an ars/takes family and animals on it -rains 7 days straight; opens window to find land -Epic of Gilgamesh (20 BC): -meets his ancestor who was the only survivor of the flood -gods got mad --> made a flood --> he builds a boat/looksfor land -gods got mad --> made a flood --> he builds a boat/looksfor land -Atrahasis Epic (17 BC: -another flood story -hey, these all sounds the same --> B's flood story isn't that unique after all -most of these stories pre-date Hebrew ppl/Genesis (10-5 BC) Peter Enns: Inspiration/Incarnation -believes B inspired by God -Incarnation: -Christians think Christ fully divine/human -B: human work but also inspired -Human Marks: creation, flood, legal codes (Hammurabi) -problem: do the other stories falsify the B (is it really the word of God?) -liberal view:reject B -yes, it's old book with made up stores -conservative: -pretend there's no problems/othertext don't exist -Enns' Meaning of Myth -ancient/pre-modernworld used these stories bc they questioned why there were there/where came from/whysinned, etc -reflects culture: -Abraham comes from Mesopotamia --> should we be surprised that Israelites had same world views as other around them? --> B stories of flood/creationmakes sense but offers monotheism --> which is super radical for the time (everyoneelse were polytheists) -diff purpose to create humans; not just to take care of the gods -is that enough to say it's true (can we use historical/science) -this isn't the point of the B -supposed to be looked at this way -"somethings that never happened are very true" Elie Wiesel Augustine: Theologian -need to be careful when thinking of God; not seen in same way as other conceivable agencies in the world -creation time/spacecouldn't take place in time/space -science/religion:2 diff languages -science: empirical -rel: language of meaning (who, why, etc) -both ask two diff questions John Calvin: Reformation -we aren't god -God sometimesdumbs things downs for us ("baby talk") -God accommodateshimself to his audience -uses pre-modern ways to communicatetruth -"diving accommodation" CS Lewis: on Genesis/myths -"I don't have a problem thinking Genesis stories derive from other stories. They are retold in the way of true creation. The re-guiding of these stories is probably at the work of God." (from Surprised by Joy) Literary Features of Genesis 1-11 Saturday, May 21, 2016 2:34 PM Toledot: "Generations" -occurs 12x in Genesis -2x as repetition (so ignore) -10 remaining: -5 in Gen 1-11: The Primeval story -5 in 12-50: Ancestral Story (ie. Abraham) -parallel structure of Gen 1-11 -10 generations pass from the Creation-Noah and from the Flood-Abraham A) Creation A) Re-creation -peeps (idk if that means family, but something with ppl I think) -blessings -mandate -food -Adam works the Ground -Noah works B) Adam/Eve ate the Fruit B) Noah eats -fruit of the tree - wine -nakedness exposed -naked viewed C) Cain cursed C) Ham sings D) Genealogy: Adam-Noah D) Sons of Noah E) Sons of God E) Tower of Babel -diving-human mix -reach heaven -men of a name -make a name F) Flood F) Gene of Shem (I think it's Shem?) -result: undoing of men result: pick Abraham/makes his name -this structure: Palistrophic A) Noah B) Family … P) God remembers Noah … B') Family A') Noah -Noah is faithful to God/vice-versa -this structure helps tell the story orally/find the key points -name used for God changes in each section -God, Yahweh, Lord God, etc -shifts back and forth -even if you group all God verses with each other/they all have diff names for God --> stories will make sense -there are slight difference (like # of animals, etc) --> documentary hypothesis: -1st 5 books of B are written by several diff authors/docs -woven together later by redactor (editor) -only applied to Torah!! (1st 5 books) -explains why there are diff styles/accounts -4 Sources: -J: Yahwist source (oldest source; some Gen/Exodus) -E: Elohist (some Gen, Ex, Numbs) D: Deuteronomistic (Deuteronomy) D: Deuteronomistic (Deuteronomy) -P: Priestly (youngest source; Leviticus, some Ex/Numb) -problems with Mosaic authorship (that Moses wrote everything) -Moses always referred to in 3rd person -use of phase "until this day" (so these accounts are looking back) -Moses' death @ end of Deut -Anachronisms: references to things until after go to Promised Land -repetition of stories (similar stories but God's name diff) -how to tell the diff: -references to God -J source (Yahwist): -10-9 BC -Yahweh for God -love for royal house of David -anthropomorphism: likes animals -stresses location in Judah (Southern Kingdom) -E Source (Elohist): -9 BC -Elohin: God -some fragments don't appear until Gen 20 -God more distant: appears in dreams, angels, vision, etc -Israel -"fear of God" is a recurring theme -D Source (Deut): -7 BC -just Deuteronomy -P Source: (Priestly) -Elohim/Yahweh -5 BC -importance: proper worship led by priestly class -Genesis 1 -Judah -genealogies connect ppl/events Exodus-Deuteronomy Saturday, May 21, 2016 3:43 PM -Deliverance/Covenant: -children of Jacob stay in Egypt --> enslaved as brick makers -kill male babies -Moses: -escapes death as infant (Mom sends him down the river) -pharaoh's daughter finds -gets in trouble bc kills slave driver for beating up Israelites --> flees Egpyt -things get worse for Israelites -becomessheppard at Mt Sinai -encounters God: burning bush --> commandsMoses to return to Egypt/savehis ppl -Escape from Egypt: -God sends series of plagues (10 total) -9 plagues: pharaoh says no 10: says okay; birth of 1st born of everyfamily --> 1st Passoveris celebrated -Israelites leave/pursued by pharaoh -Red Sea is parted/Israelites go through/pharaoh's army drowns -go south to Mt Sinai -10 Commandments:Decalogue -covenant relationship btwn Israelites/God -soon broken (they worship a golden calf) --> foreshadowing of a recurring theme -when did God reveal his name YHWH to Israelites -Yahweh: I am who I am -1st time: Gen 4:26 (J Source) -2nd: Ex 1:14-15 (E source) -3rd: Ex 6:2-3 (P source) -this enables a more personal relationship Leviticus Saturday, May 21, 2016 3:43 PM -Instructions to Worship Yahweh -describes proper way to worship/sacrifice Holiness code: -holy place, ppl, times are established -cleanliness: normal status -holy: very pure -unclean: sinful action -explains how get unclean to clean to holy: -places: tabernacle; scared worship with God (arc it at tabernacle with 10 Commandments) -center of the camp -2 chambers: outer/inner (Arc is in the inner) -only highest priests can go it -portable: God always there -people: hierarchy -12 tribes based on Jacob's descendants -Levi's: holy tribe above others --> diff class Only Levi's can be priests -rituals: sacrifice (animals usually) -clean sin to reconcile with God -atonement -sacrifices overlookedby priests -times: festivals/holydays -Sabbath -Feast of Passover -kosher/non -made by priests as they say to be holy -normal/abnormalanimals -fish vs lobster (can't each lobster) Numbers Saturday, May 21, 2016 3:50 PM -"in the wilderness" -can't be a narrative bc it's an account of Israelite's journey -time of closeness to God/rebellion -presence of God with them in tabernacle: -portable/moveswith them -God feeds, takes care of, talks to -distance with God: -get tired of living in wilderness -takes place in outskirts of PromisedLand -try to invade --> get pushed back Mnt Nebo: Moses gazes at but can't get to -repeated stories similar to Exodus: -Quail/manna -water from rock -Moses meet with father-in-law -Israelites murmur -theme: on edge of land but not quite there yet Deuteronomy Saturday, May 21, 2016 4:10 PM -the 2nd law -not narratives, mostlyspeeches by Moses to ppl on how to worship God -provides a lens through which history of Israel is told in Johana-Kings -surface setting vs compositionalsetting -set in time of Moses but composedseveral centuries later in King Josiah -theme: worshiping God brings blessings; if you don't worship there is punishment -shapes how write history -good times: proper worship -bad time: not proper -this is called the Deuteronomistic______________( I never caught what the second word was) -debate on when written/setting -surface: when tookplace -compositional:when written -time written shapes how written -surface: Mosesgives speech -comps: probably around Josiah (he worshiped God correctly/wasa good king) -this wraps up the Torah -for this class's exams: -all multiple choice (70-75q's) -in class stuff -Jonah/Enns readings; talked in class about changes in style/similarities/diff -source criticism: which source -redaction criticism: how editor looked at MCC/madepossible changes Ancestral Israel Saturday, May 21, 2016 4:18 PM -Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph -prob lived 2000-1500BC (Mid Bronze Age) -est covenant with God -Exodus/Conquest: -Ex: 1280BC -no Egyptian sources to verify the date -Conquest of Canaan: Joshua -Rise of Judges/Priests: -no centralized gov't -12 tribes; each ruled own -judges: military leaders who warded off invaders -higher monarchy: -Israel wanted a king -created strong, centralized gov bc of Philistine threat -some ppl against king: Samuel -unsure of king -God takes care of then --> no need for a king -Monarch of Unified Kingdom: -Samuel chooseskings: Saul, David, Solomon Saul: -anointed by Samuel -1020 BC -went into temple to offer sacrifices --> Samuel chooses David as new king -I think it was against law to go into the temple David: -Samuel shoe -Southern Judah liked but not Northern -HQ movedto Jerusalem (in the middle of Judah) -expands kingdomg: -Solomonwon succession -Solomon: -David/Bathsheba'sson -wanted to upgrade the kingdom but needs $ -elaborate kingdom/dimplomacy -high taxes/enslavedIsraelites -Solomon'sTemple: -North didn't like --> secede -his son Rehoboam succeeds Divided Kingdom: -North becomesIsrael; led by King Jeroboam -South --> Judah; led by King Rehoboan Israel: -cut off from Jerusalem but still worships god -finds new ways to worship: -finds new ways to worship: -new holy sites, feats days, priesthood, symbols, creates E source -defeated by Assyrians 721 BC Judah: -lasts longer than Israel -deal with Assyrians: recognizes them as the authority so they aren't conquered -King Josiah: -religions reform:too much worship of Bale -kills worshipper/renewalof God -scrolls found in 622 -"Book of the Covenant" --> becomesDeuteronomy -Babylonian Era: -expands to Judah -same this as Assyrians; recognize as authority so aren't conquered -587: Jerusalem rebels bc can't worship God -temples/citydestroyed --> "Babylonian captivity"
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