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CDFR 3306 Week 1 Notes

by: Victoria Baumann

CDFR 3306 Week 1 Notes CDFR 3306

Victoria Baumann
GPA 3.5

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Powerpoint, Chapter 1, Chapter 2
Guiding Children's Behavior
Dr. Hedge
Class Notes
child development, Childhood Socialization, Children, behavior
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Baumann on Sunday May 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDFR 3306 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Hedge in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Guiding Children's Behavior in Child Development at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 05/22/16
Chapter One: Thinking About Guidance and Discipline Historical Foundations  Puritan belief said, “that children are born evil and they are stubborn”  Harsh and restrictive parenting was considered important for children  Children were dressed in stiff and uncomfortable clothing  These ideas were later brought to the US and Europe. Thus harsh parenting gained prevalence  However, they also later emphasized the importance of education. Through education they believed children will gain self-control and will be self-disciplined New and positive philosophies put the children into focus  John Locke – Child as a “Tabula Rasa” – Blank Slate  Children begin with nothing, its experiences that shape their personality and behavior  Parents can mold children’s behavior according to their wishes  He thought hard discipline was not necessary for children. One can mold children’s behavior in a positive fashion based on rewards  “The child is a small letter, yet the best copy of ADAM… His soul is yet a while paper unscribbled with observations… and he knows no evil”  IMPLICATIONS: Outlook towards children was changed from harshness to kindness, environment had a powerful role to play in children’s development, children as a passive being was emphasized  Jean Jacques Rousseau  They are not blank slates waiting to be written upon or filled with adult instruction  Instead they are “Nobel Savages”  Naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and have an innate plan for orderly and healthy growth  Unlike Locke, Rousseau believed that children do have a built in sense of morality, and this unique way of morality would be hampered if adults keep on training them  This was the beginning to the child centered philosophy  Implications: Children were viewed as active, organisms, built in the belief that children unfold at every stage of development: infancy, childhood, late childhood, and adolescence in a genetically predetermined way. Thus adults have to be supportive towards children’s development  Friedrich Forebel  Believed early years are the most critical in shaping children’s future  Further, he thought that nature of the child was essentially good and the “faults” (behaviors) were the product of particular experiences  “There are many faults… Which arise through carelessness. When children act on impulse which in itself may be harmless or ever praiseworthy, they can become so entirely absorbed that they have no thought for the consequences, and indeed from their own limited experience can have no knowledge of them”  “Moreover, it is certainly trust that has a rule the child is first made bad by some other person, often by the educator himself. This can happen when everything which the child does out of ignorance or thoughtlessness or even from a keen sense of right and wrong is attributed to an intention to do evil. Unhappily there are among teachers those who always see children as mischievous, spiteful… whereas others seen at most overexuberant sense of life or a situation which has got out of hand”  John Dewey  “If you have the end in view of forty or fifty children learning certain set of lessons, to be recited to the teacher you discipline must be devoted to securing that result. But if the end in view is the development of the spirit of social cooperation and community life…” T  Then “BE IT” – We have to prepare citizens for democratic society  Rudolph Dreikurs  He is the first who talked about positive classroom management or positive discipline for children  He believed that one should be working with children rather than in opposition to children  Teachers need to be “leaders rather than bosses” in their work with children  He believed that every behavior of the child is goal directed and the most preeminent goal of behavior is “SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE”  “Behavior is Purposive or goal directed… humans are social beings which the overriding goal of belonging or finding a place in the society… the child’s behavior indicates the ways and means by which he tries to be significant. If these ways and means are antisocial and disrupting, then the child did not develop the right idea about how to find his place. The antisocial ways or mistaken goals reflects an error in the child’s judgment and his comprehension of life and the necessities of social living”  “To understand the child we need to understand the purpose”  Haim Ginott  Helped us articulate the understanding of guidance  “Where do we start if we want to improve life in a classroom? Be examining how we respond to children. How a teacher communicates is a decisive importance. It affects a child’s life for good or bad. Unusually we are not overly concerned about whether one’s response conveys acceptance or rejection. Yet to a child this difference is fateful, if not fatal” Child Guidance and Discipline  Child guidance and discipline is incredibly complex, confusing and frustrating (e.g. party)  There are no simple solutions, effect discipline requires understanding developmental level of the child, situations (e.g. ignoring behavior of children), commitment towards children, and patience  (Deal with the problem and not just resolve it)  Guidance: associated with helping kids deal with problems (as in guidance counselor Defining Discipline What it is  Help children learn personal responsibility for the behavior and judge between what is right and wrong (e.g. food eating)  Helping children make wise choices about what they should do and why (e.g. share or cooperate, e.g. Hailey)  Reason out with the child (e.g. Jamie)  Gain internal control  Try to eliminate the cause (Diagnostic teaching) What it is not  Merely stopping unproductive actions  Just enforcing rules  Just punish or reward the child  Just have external controls in life  Just believe what you see Goals of Discipline Long – Term (ends and means are inseparable  What kind of people do you value in life?  What kind of people function best in society (e.g. Jong)? Self-Concept (who we are and what we can do) and self-esteem (how we feel about that)  Provide a basis for good self-concept and good self-esteem  Lecturing, bullying, bribing don’t really help Self-Discipline  What leads to the path of self-discipline? (Rewards for good, punishment for bad)  Helping children self regulate their own behaviors? Moral Autonomy  Guided and governed by their own beliefs and understanding (Reason, Understand and Apply that rule to their own life)  Heteronomy – being governed or ruled by somebody else (Blind Conformity to Rules)  A person is kind to others because of their personal feelings of respect for others (You don’t respect somebody because you have to)  AUTONOMY DOES NOT MEAN LACK OF CONTROL. IT MEANS SOURCE OF CONTROL.  Autonomy does not mean right to make decisions, but that ability to make decisions  In a morally autonomous person, SOURCE OF CONTROL LIES WITHIN HIMSELF/HERSELF Long-Term vs. Quick Fix Solutions What do we as individuals fall succumb to these quick fix solutions?  We are stressed  We don’t know what is the right thing to do in a particular situation  We are raised like that  It works most of the time But can we afford to overlook these long-term goals? Discipline Models Baumerind (Demand and Responsiveness)  Authoritarian: Adults make all the decisions, any deviation is punished  Authoritative: Shared power (They are supportive and assertive)  Permissive: Child makes all the decisions Greenberg (Forms of discipline with forms of government)  Autocratic = Dictatorship – adult holding power  Anarchy = Overly permissive  Democratic = Shared power Relating Discipline Styles to Learning Theories  Authoritarian – Behaviorist (molding behavior with reward and punishment  Permissive – Maturationist (believes time is the best teacher)  Authoritative – Constructivist (children learn though their experiences, they are active in their development and adults play and active role in guiding children’s behavior) Child Outcomes Associated with Discipline Models  Authoritarian – Associated with anger, depression, low self-esteem, and inability to make self-directed choices  Permissive – Associated with low self-esteem and difficulty getting along with others  Authoritative – Associated with high self-esteem, good social skills, general competence, self discipline (chances, experiences, and opportunities) Constructivist  Constructivism helps children learn from their experiences and from reflecting on those experiences  Gradually they believe this ability of self reflection will help children become autonomous (e.g. Tyler)  This will be established through mutually caring and respectful relationships between the adults and peers  These interactions will encourage children to think about the effects of their behavior on other people  Emphasis on respect Models of Discipline and Constructivism  Autocratic Government – Authoritarian: Adult makes all the decisions, any deviation is punished – Behaviorist (rewards and punishment)    Anarchy Government – Permissive – Maturationist (believes time is the best teacher)    Democratic Government – Authoritative shared power (Supportive and assertive) – Constructive   Constructivist approach is NOT the middle ground between behaviorist and Maturationist – it is NOT a “nicer” approach to obedience (strives for MUCH MORE THAN OBDEIENCE) Teaching Moral Autonomy Mutual Respect  Mutual respect between the adult and child is the foundation of moral autonomy – child must want to maintain a relationship with the adult  Kindness, respect, and affection (both sided)  Investing time and energy (talk to child, listen to the child, interaction with the child)  Calling the child sloppy when something falls on the ground, or yelling at the child in an angry tone overrides the purpose of teaching or respect Helping children understand  Children need to learn why a behavior is desirable or undesirable  The things that are obvious to you may not be obvious to them – words are helpful but experiences are important (e.g. the child asking questions that are not appropriate)  Rather than yelling for water fallen on the floor. Make Erin clean that water from the floor  Child knocks somebody’s blocks in the block area. Rather than yelling, help the child restore the situation Learn reasons behind rules and requests  Children often learn meaningless words of apology or appreciation with not idea what they mean (Fine Thank You Madam)  Problem solving takes time and practice Example Erin and Jamie (3 years old) are fighting over a doll “I had it first”  One can simply say, can’t you share  Remove from their hand and say nobody gets it  Try to figure out who had it first  OR HELP THEM UNDERSTAND HOW TO RESOLVE THAT CONFLICT (think about their behavior and solve the problem – long term goal) Children need to be taught that other people have needs and feelings that are different from their own – understand how their behavior is affecting others Children need our constant support Teaching Moral Autonomy Guiding choices  Constructivist approach allows children to make as many choices as possible (you help them make choices, not make choices for them)  As children learn to regulate their own behavior that make both good and bad choices (necessary for them to make some “bad” choices, but be there to support them)  “Fighting with a friend and then feeling left out”  Some choices are not appropriate for children to make (putting their hand in an electrical socket)  Conflicts and problems are potential learning situations and opportunities for adults to offer meaningful teaching Treating the cause rather than the behavior  One must seek to understand why a behavior occurred  Spilling water – immature coordination, attention seeking, having too much fun with water  Can we have the same discipline for different causes (time out)?  Different causes of behavior point to different solutions (matching discipline and guidance approached to behavior  Observation of a child is very important  Usual or unusual behavior, under what circumstances did this situation happen, is there a pattern  Never underestimate that you may have caused a discipline problem  If you use the same discipline technique for all the problems surely you have caused a problem Discovering Causes of Behavior Problems Ask yourself the following:  Is the environment meeting the child’s needs?  Is the program meeting the child’s needs?  Are the behavioral expectations appropriate for this child?  Does the child have unmet physical or emotional needs?  Is this child missing some social skill?  Does this child need help with communication skills?  Does this child understand why a behavior is important?  Has this child learned inappropriate ways of getting needs met? To conclude “The skills of problem solving, predicting consequences, and planning ahead are vital for children to escape the cultural of violence” Chapter 1 Book Notes Defining Discipline Guidance: is usually associated with helping kids deal with problems (as in guidance counselor) Discipline: helping children learn personal responsibility for their behavior and the ability to judge between right and wrong for themselves  We want to help children learn to make wise choices about what they should do  Advocating approaches that help children understand why certain behaviors are better than others, and that help children choose to act in a desirable manner, whether or not an adult is there to “catch” them at it – individualized to the needs and abilities of each child  Key element in the process is determining the cause of undesirable behaviors and working to eliminate that cause The Goals of Discipline Long-Term Goals  In order to examine long-term goals, you may find it useful to ask yourself what kind of people you value  Early discipline influences character for a lifetime’ therefore, it is essential to think about what kind of people function best in society rather than merely considering what king of children are easiest to manage Self-Concept and Self-Esteem Self-Concept is an understanding of who we are and what we can do; self-esteem is how we feel about that  A realistic self-concept is essential for mental health and can provide the basis for developing good self-esteem  Children often aren’t really listened to, and are routinely treated with much less respect than adults are—they are lectured, ignored, bullied, and bribed in ways no adult would ever put up with Self-Discipline Some people believe that rewards for acceptable behavior and punishments for unacceptable behavior lead to self-discipline. Such viewpoints do not recognize that being manipulated by reward and punishment is vastly different from learning about what is right and how to make wise and caring decisions ***Children can’t learn to regulate their own behavior as long as others are regulating it for them*** Moral Autonomy Autonomy: means being governed and guided by your own beliefs and understandings  “Ability to make decisions for oneself about right and wrong, independent of reward or punishment, by taking relevant factors into account” – Piaget’s theory of autonomy  The morally autonomous person is kind to others out of personal feelings of respect for other human beings  Morally autonomous persons do not join in inappropriate group activities in order to be accepted by their peers  Does not mean lack of control; rather, it refers to the source of control (within themselves) Heteronomy: being governed or ruled by someone else  Is kinds to others only if that behavior is rewarded, or if there is the possibility that the absence of that behavior could be discovered and punishment could be imposed  Likely to act irresponsibly when there are no external controls  Experience control only when someone else is present; they depend on an external judge to reward and punish their behavior Long-Term vs. Quick-Fix Solutions “ One mother reports that she was powerfully motivated to help her some Michael learn self-discipline when she thought about him getting a driver’s license in 10 years… She knew that inner controls would stay with Michael long after she couldn’t. Therefore, she focused on discipline approaches that fostered inner control rather than obedience.” Discipline Models Compared Because we view discipline as teaching, we believe it makes sense to based guidance and discipline on learning theory. Therefore, we compare the guidance approaches according to which learning theory they most closely fit  Behaviorist  Maturationist  Constructivist  Constructivism helps children learn from their experiences and from thinking about those experience  Through this process, the learner is assisted in gaining increasingly sophisticated levels of understanding. Thus, children gradually develop the ability to take many relevant factors into consideration when deciding what action is best for all concerned.  Constructivists recognize that teaching young children involves accepting immature thinking and requires working in conjunction with maturation to help children move to greater understanding Discipline Goals Compared THEORY PROCESS GOAL Behaviorist Molds behavior via rewards Obedience and punishment Constructivist Helps children learn from Moral Autonomy experience and reasoning Maturationist Believes time is the best Individual Development teacher Authoritarian model – obedience is the target behavior; prefers unquestioning and immediate obedience  Reward and punishment  Associated with anger and depression, low self-esteem and the inability to make self-directed choices Permissive Model – emphasizes individual freedom, although it can also be a result of neglect  Lack of discipline  Low self-esteem and difficulty getting along with others Constructivist Model – works towards moral autonomy: self-determined and responsible behavior, showing concern for the good of others and for oneself as well  Acknowledges the complexity of the ever-changing world; therefore, it teaches children to think for themselves about desirable and undesirable actions rather than telling them predetermined answers to current dilemmas  Instructive Discipline: aimed at helping children construct socially productive behavior rules and values for themselves  High self-esteem, good social skills, general competence, and self-discipline  Help most children quickly learn to negotiate solutions to problems, to resolve their own conflicts and to self-direct their learning activity {Kohn’s Unconditional Parenting: Moving from Rewards and Punishment to Love and Reason} BE SURE TO WARN FAMILIES ABOUT ONE OF THE MOST COMMON AND MOST DEVASTATING REWARD/PUNISHMENT APPROACHES: MAKING PARENTAL LOVE AND APPROVAL CONDITIONAL ON OBEDIENCE Teaching For Moral Autonomy: The Constructivist Approach 1. Mutual Respect – it is just as important for you to treat the child with respect as it is for the child to trust you with response 2. Constructivist teachers always strive to help children understand why a behavior is desirable or undesirable 3. Providing age-appropriate choices for kids and supporting them in solving their own problems is a way of showing respect for children and also a way of teaching, thinking, and assisting understanding 4. When undesirable behavior occurs, your discipline efforts must address the cause of the behavior for effective teaching to take place Mutual Respect  Having a relationship with a child requires investing time in getting to know children as individual and attempting to understand them  Spending time with a kid and listening to that child not only helps and adult understand the child, but also demonstrates respect  It is also important to be aware of how your attitude is projected – anger or disgust in your expression or tone of voice can override even the most carefully chosen words Helping Children Understand  You need to help kids learn the reasons behind rules and requests  Usually young children need experiences to help them understand explanations Learning to concerned the viewpoints of others in making decision is a part of learning moral autonomy  According to Piaget, we also teach moral autonomy and the necessary understanding of others’ views when we help children realize the effects of their behavior rather than merely punishing it.  Problem Solving – young children have limited reasoning ability but they become more capable when encouraged to discuss their different views YOUR JOB IS TO HELP CHILDREN LEARN HOW TO MAKE WISE CHOICES, NOT TO MAKE ALL THE CHOICES FOR THEM. *** conflicts and problems are seen as potential learning situations and opportunities to offer meaningful teaching Observing to Discover the Cause  Observe the child carefully and record your observations; usual, unusual, circumstances  Communicating with parents and keeping careful records of child behavior are both indispensable parts of determining the cause of problems – assessing social learning needs as well as finding the causes for the behavior How discipline problems can we caused 1. Teach expectations that don’t match the child’s development, temperament, or culture 2. Inappropriate school environments 3. Undesirable adult examples and communication Chapter 2: Physical and Emotional Development after Child Behavior Related Physical Development Issues Children need adequate rest and nourishment  Infants and toddlers have the greatest need  Preschool and early elementary age children still need frequent breaks for physical movement, rest, and nourishment in order to be alert, attentive, and ready to learn  Movement is necessary for intellectual development – physical movement stimulated the myelinization process critical to development of neural pathways o Allows young children to gain control over their muscles and their sensory ability, and facilitates their cognitive processes o Physical movement increases blood flow to the brain  Physical games that require children to watch movements and mimic them with their own bodies help with the development of sensory integration, which aides in the development of reading and writing skills need to move around Physical play helps children gain skills for preventing and solving discipline problems  Learn to communicate and cooperate  Manage their own behaviors and emotions  Self-awareness, empathy, self-restraint, problem solving skills, and assertiveness  Build confidence and peer relationships  Negotiate rules, take turns, and lead (or follow) = developing critical skills they will use throughout their lifetimes  Having good agility, balance, coordination, power, and speed can promote social interaction and peer acceptance Movement affects brain chemistry in humans and can be an effective tool for managing emotional stress  Boys typically need a longer period of time to process their emotions o Boys may need the experience of a physical release to recover from uncomfortable or difficult emotional experiences  Girls are often able to use their verbal skills to work through an emotional experience small-muscle coordination takes time Gender differences play a role in the development of dexterity  Girls tend to be more advanced in find motor skills and in gross motor skills requiring precision (e.g., hopping and skipping)  Boys excel in skills that require force and power (e.g., running and jumping) Fine motor skills lag behind gross motor coordination for many children  Placing pressure on children to perform above their current level of development will result in frustration and feelings of failure  negative behaviors  Matching your expectations to children’s abilities will avert some potential discipline struggles  Fine motor development can be encouraged appropriately (e.g., opportunities for practice, appropriate tools, adults support) o Working with modeling clay and using age appropriate woodworking tools are other excellent ways to build fine motor skills Need for food and rest Many children today are misnourished, with a large amount of their calories coming from mom-nutritive foods  Contributes to childhood obesity  Affects children’s behavior (e.g., too much sugar or lack of protein  sugar crash) o Loss of self-control o Impulsive o Withdrawn or distracted Children need to take breaks  Scheduled rest periods are important for young children, but tend to disappear once children enter kindergarten or first grade  Don’t push them beyond their limits! o Mrs. Jensen’s classroom offers several soft, secluded sports, and her schedule offers the flexibility to use them emotional development and guidance Temperament Temperament is a component of personality  Determined by our genetics and how we were nurtured  Determines how we react to stimuli and how we regulate these reactions  Emotional regulation development is dependent on temperament Temperament effects how others react to the child  Challenge for adults is how to respond positively to a more difficult child  They need your help and understanding because their difficult temperaments are making life more difficult for them too  Individual differences in temperament influence children’s social interactions throughout their lifetime and can have long-term effects on their mental health  Caregivers must focus their interests on adapting the environment and teaching styles to accommodate the needs of the children involved – “making the school fit the child, as opposed to trying to make the child fit the school”  Temperament must be considered then teachers assess the cause of a discipline problem to determine the best action to take with the child development stages Erikson’s (1963) theory of personality encompasses the entire lifespan and attempts to explain patterns of behavior throughout every stage of life  Each stage has a particular focus, or developmental task, that influences the child’s response at this time Trust vs. Mistrust Babies learn whether the world around them is safe and nurturing Autonomy vs. Shame Toddlers learn to define themselves as individuals or feel shame about their independent urges Initiative vs. Guilt Children learn to test their individual powers and abilities or feel guilty about their mistakes Industry vs. Inferiority Children extend their ideas of themselves as successful workers or lean to feel inferior and incapable Trust vs. mistrust Erikson explains that infants’ early interactions with their parents form the basis for the development of emotional regulation  First experiences about the world = forming the foundation of emotional health for the rest of their lives  Efforts to communicate their needs deserve a response o Responsive adults are setting the stage for children to build trusting and cooperative relationships throughout their lifetime o When needs aren’t met, the child feels insecure and does not trust in others to take care of him or her  can lead them to expect continued disappointments from everyone they encounter o “They expect others to reject them, so they behavior in ways that invite rejection. Your challenge is to help children have experiences that will reverse this cycle and help them begin to develop trust in caring adults” autonomy vs. shame Erikson’s autonomy stage is the period when children work at defining themselves as separate from the adults they have  toddlers being to see that they are separate people, with ideas and wills of their own  they need to test this new revelation to make sure it is true and to convince themselves of their independence  “Terrible Tows,” but may not actually begin until age 3  Can create serious discipline problems for unwary adults Children who routinely have a chance to exercise their personal power are often more able to accept times when adults must make the decisions When children do not develop emotional autonomy, they develop a sense of shame  Can be cause by their experiences with adults who don’t understand what is happening when children assert themselves initiative Vs. guilt This stage is like a bride that children may continually move back and forth across, trying out being a “big kid” and then moving back into the security of their dependency on caregivers (Koplow, 2007).  May be competitive and want to be the best are everything they do  May be intimidated and fear failure when tasks are too difficult for them When teachers save all the works for themselves, no one “wins” industry vs. inferiority School-age children are working through this emotional development stage, which builds on the preschool stage of initiative vs. guilt  Children are extending their ideas of themselves as workers and contributing members of society  If they feel successful, their behaviors mirror their good feelings about themselves = seeing yourself as a capable person  Negative behaviors result when children have negative feelings about themselves Their development task in this stage is to earn recognition for productive work and to master the tools necessary for this work  Learning to read, write, think quantitatively, and work cooperatively  Children need to have opportunities for real work that is meaningful to them and that they are allowed to do on their own Too many children are labeled as failures at this stage, especially children who fail to begin reading on society’s schedule (inferiority)  Others shun as being dump  Disrupts class out of frustration and anger  Teachers are eager to send child off to the reading specialist families and attachment Secure Attachment: is a loving relationship which special people; interacting with these people is pleasurable, and their nearness is comforting in times of stress (Berk, 2007).  Developing a secure attachment including giving a child room to explore while also being aware of and sensitive to the child’s needs  Begins in Erikson’s stage “Trust vs. Mistrust”  Difficult children come from family situations where their attachment experience has been stressful, dysfunctional, or dangerous  unable to express their own feelings, may be aggressive towards or reject others teachers and attachment Child without the foundation of secure attachment, the most important task for the teacher is to focus on building a positive, consistent, and trusting relationship with that child human needs Adler (1917) proposes that power, attention, and acceptance are basic human needs requires for individual to feel personal significance and a sense of belonging  When needs are met people feel good about themselves and tend to interact with others in positive ways – creates a cycle of positive interaction that further convinces them that they are significant in their world  Human nature leads people who feel insignificant to behave in ways that further alienate them from the acceptance and approval they desire power Personal Power: a need for being in charge of your own actions  Too much external control over their behavior = unmet power needs o May make them bossy and controlling of others, or it may overwhelm them with frustration and anger o Sometimes temper tantrums are a result of feeling powerless  Young children are especially vulnerable to unmet power needs because they are able to make so few actual decisions for themselves o Important to let them have choices when possible, and to redirect them towards activities they are allowed to do, rather than just telling them what they aren’t allowed to do ***When giving them choices, it is important to offer just a couple of options so the child is not overwhelmed and to be sure both options really are acceptable to your and the child*** attention Attention is a major indicator of significance and social recognition Many adults unwittingly teach children to misbehave in order to get the attention they crave  They pay no attention to children who are getting along well or who are working productively; they give attention only when there is a problem  Children have no idea how to get attention in positive ways; therefore, they strive to get it in negative ways Noticing what children are doing and commenting to them about what they see without any judgment goes a long way toward meeting their needs for attention acceptance Young children generally lack understanding of others’ feelings, and this often causes them to act in ways that result in rejects  Teacher must be prepared to help children learn more useful strategies for dealing with peer rejection motives of misbehavior Dreikurs (1964) proposes that children often misbehave in an unconscious attempt to have their basic needs met  May be the result of the need for power, attention, revenge, or an attempt to avoid failure o Avoidance of failure means a child has totally quit trying – the result of experiencing too many failures in the quest to fulfill personal needs and becoming convince there is no hope of success o May have behavior problems when they cannot regulate their emotions emotional regulation Emotional Regulation: our ability to control our internal reactions and outward expressions of our emotions (Landy, 2009).  Development of emotional regulation = children can identify their feelings and verbalize them to others, they can cope with emotional highs and lows appropriately, and they can refrain from acting on their impulses when needed  Also learn to delay gratification and motivate themselves into action as they develop emotion regulation skills  Emotionally competent children are aware of their own emotions and the emotions of others – read social ques and show empathy to others Takes time  Learning how to deal with frustration, how to cope with fear and anxiety, and how to express pleasure in an appropriate way are important aspects of developing emotional regulation  We develop our ability to regulate emotions in several ways: our genetic makeup, brain development, temperament, and attachment  Developing a secure attachment with a caregiver contributes to developing emotional competency Areas of the brain  When we react impulsively to stressors, the “fight-or-flight” region of our brain, the amygdala, takes over o The amygdala directs our instance passionate responses to any perceived threat, without taking the time to consider if we are making a good decision  As children mature and learn emotional regulation skills, that are increasingly able to engage the thinking area of the brain, in the frontal lobe, to handle emotional situations o They are able to problem solve and learn new skills o Able to cooperate better with peers, because they being to understand the emotions of those around them When schools focus on helping children develop their emotional competence, academic achievement increases, quality of relationships with peers and teachers improves, and behavior problems decrease helping children develop emotional competence Forming positive and supportive relationships with children in your classes is the first and possibly most important step in assisting in their emotional development Emotional Coaching techniques:  Build positive, respectful relationships with each individual child  Integrate discussions about emotions into curriculum  Acknowledge children’s feelings (don’t minimize or ignore emotions)  Help children put their feelings into words they understand  Model appropriate expressions of your own feelings


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StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.