CDE 232 Chapter 4
CDE 232 Chapter 4 CDE 232
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Popular in Child Development
This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan R on Sunday May 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDE 232 at Arizona State University taught by Ladd in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Human Development in Child Development at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 05/22/16
Chapter 4 Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood Body Growth ▪ Height increases: ▪ 50% by age 1 ▪ 75% by age 2 ▪ Weight: ▪ doubles by 5 months ▪ triples by 1 year Individual and Group Differences in Growth ▪ Group differences: ▪ male/female ▪ ethnic ▪ Individual differences ▪ Skeletal age: best estimate of physical maturity Growth Trends Changes in Body Proportions Cephalococauda Proximodistal l ▪ “Near to far” ▪ “Head to tail” ▪ Extremities grow ▪ Lower part of later than head, body grows chest, and trunk later than the head Neurons and Their Connective Fibers Nerve cells that store and Nerons transmit information Tiny gaps where fibers from Synapse different neurons come together but do not touch Neurotransmitter Chemicals that are released s? by neurons and cross the synapse Methods: Measuring Brain Functioning ▪ Electroencephalogram (EEG) ▪ Event-related potentials (ERPs) ▪ Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) ▪ Positron emission tomography (PET) ▪ Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) Regions of the Cerebral Cortex Figure 4.4 Prefrontal Cortex ▪ Region of the cerebral cortex responsible for thought, especially: ▪ inhibition of impulses ▪ consciousness ▪ integration of information ▪ use of memory, reasoning, planning, and problem-solving strategies ▪ Undergoes rapid growth in the preschool and school years, and in adolescence Lateralization of the Cerebral Cortex Left Hemisphere Right ▪ Positive emotion Hemisphere ▪ Spatial abilities ▪ verbal abilities ▪ Sequential, ▪ negative emotion analytic ▪ Holistic, processing integrative processing Brain Plasticity ▪ At birth, hemispheres have already begun to specialize ▪ Highly plastic cerebral cortex has high capacity for learning ▪ If part of cortex is damaged, other areas can take over its tasks ▪ Older children and adults retain some plasticity, but less than in young children Sensitive Periods in Brain Development Stimulation Vital for Brain Growth ▪Experience-_________ growth: some brain areas appear “prepared” for stimulation resulting from ordinary experiences ▪Experience-__________ growth: specialized growth built from novel Changing States of Arousal ▪ Sleep–wake pattern moves to night– day schedule during first year ▪ By age 2, total sleep time declines from 18 to 12 hours per day ▪ Sleep patterns are affected by social environment, cultural values © Michael Pettigrew/ Shutterstock Influences on Early Growth ▪ Heredity ▪ Nutrition: ▪ breastfeeding vs. bottle-feeding ▪ risks of overfeeding ▪ Malnutrition © stefanolunardi/Shutterstock Benefits of Breastfeeding ▪ Correct balance of fat and protein ▪ Ensures nutritional completeness ▪ Helps ensure healthy physical growth ▪ prevents respiratory and intestinal infections ▪ Protects against disease ▪ 74% American moms breastfeed but more than half quit by 6 months ▪ WHO recommends breastfeeding until age 2, adding solids at 6 months -Infant weight gain linked with later obesity © Pixel Memoirs/Shutterstock role of fast food, sugar in diets Malnutrition Type Consequences Lasting physical damage; Marasmus(diet low in learning and behavioral all essential nutrients) effects; risk of death Lasting physical damage; Kwashiorko(diet learning and behavioral very low in protein) effects Effects on physical Food insecurity growth; learning problems The Steps of Classical Conditioning Figure 4.5 Operant Conditioning Reinforcer Punishment ▪ Increases ▪ reduces probability probability that that behavior will behavior will occur occur again by again by ▪ presenting ▪ presenting desirable unpleasant stimulus stimulus ▪ removing desirable stimulus ▪ removing unpleasant stimulus Using Habituation to Study Infant Memory and Knowledge Figure 4.6 Imitation ▪ Infants are born with primitive ability to imitate ▪ Mirror neurons provide biological explanation ▪ fire the same way when infant sees/hears an action as © Seleznev Oleg/Shutterstock s(he) attempts to do the action ▪ powerful means of learning Motor Development Sequence and Trends ▪ Gross-motor development: crawling, standing ▪ Fine-motor development: ▪ Sequence is fairly uniform ▪ Large individual © S.Borisov/Shutterstock differences in rate of motor progress Cultural Variations in Motor Development Rates and patterns of development affected by ▪ early movement opportunities ▪ environmental stimulation © XiXinXing/Shutterstock ▪ child-rearing practices Milestones of Reaching and Grasping 1)pre-reaching (newborns) 2)ulnar grasp (3-4 months) 3)transferring objects from hand to hand (4-5 months) © StockLite/Shutterstock 4)Pincer grasp (9 months-1 year) Developments in Hearing 4-7 months Sense of musical phrasing 6-7 months Distinguishes musical tunes based on variations in rhythmic patterns 6-8 months “Screens out” sounds not used in native language Detects sound regularities 6-12 months in human speech Begins to divide speech stream 7-9 months into wordlike units Visual Development ▪ Supported by rapid maturation of eyes and visual centers in brain ▪ Improvements: ▪ 2 months: focus ▪ 4 months: color vision ▪ 6 months: acuity, © Payless Images/Sscanning, and tracking ▪ 6–7 months: depth perception Milestones in Depth Perception 3–4 weeks Sensitivity to motion cues 2–3 Sensitivity to binocular depth months cues 5–7 Sensitivity to pictorial depth months cues The Visual Cliff Reveals link between crawling and depth perception Figure 4.11 Milestones in Pattern Perception 2 Becomes sensitive to contrast in complex months patterns; prefers them to simple patterns 2–3 Thoroughly explores a pattern’s features, months pausing briefly to look at each part 3–4 Detects pattern organization, integrating months pattern parts into organized whole 12 Detects familiar objects represented months by incomplete drawings Early Face Perception (From Cassia, Turati, & Simion, 2004; Johnson, 1999; Mondloch et al., 1999.) Milestones in Face Perception birth- 1 Prefers simple facelike pattern to other month stimuli Prefers complex facial pattern 2-4 to other complex stimulus arrangements months Prefers mother’s detailed facial features to another woman’s 3 Distinguishes features of different faces months 5-12 Perceives emotional expressions months on faces as meaningful wholes Milestones in Intermodal Perception birth Perceives amodal sensory properties Matches faces with voices on basis of 3-4 lip–voice synchrony, emotional months expression, and speaker’s age and gender Perceives and remembers unique face–voice pairings of unfamiliar adults Differentiation Theory Infants ▪ actively search for invariant features of the environment ▪ Notice stable relationships among features of a stimulus, detecting patterns such as individual faces ▪ gradually detect finer and finer features
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