CDE 232 Chapter 6
CDE 232 Chapter 6 CDE 232
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Popular in Child Development
This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan R on Sunday May 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDE 232 at Arizona State University taught by Ladd in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Human Development in Child Development at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 05/22/16
Chapter 6 Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and oddlerhood Psychosocial Stages During Infancy and T oddlerhood Erikson’s Stage Needed from Caregivers ▪ Responsiveness ▪ Sympathetic, loving balance of care ▪ Suitable guidance and reasonable choices ▪ Reasonable expectations for impulse control Erik Erikson ▪ _________ vs. ___________ ▪ When resolved favorably: parent’s responsiveness & love creates in the infant a sense of “trust” ▪ Trust = expecting world to be good and gratifying ▪ __________ vs. _______ and __________ ▪ When resolved favorably: parents offer guidance, are not overly critical, and encourage child to control own impulses ▪ Yields sense of confidence (“I can do it myself!), security, & control over environment ▪ Origins of perceived competence, self esteem First Appearance of Basic Emotions ▪ Smile: Happiness Social smile: 6–10 weeks ▪ ▪ Laugh: ▪ General distress: from birth ▪ Anger: 4–6 months ▪ Sadness: response to disrupted caregiver–infant communication ▪ First fears: second half of first year Fear ▪ ________ ________: most frequent expression of fear Responding to Emotions of Others ▪ _________ feeling tone of caregiver ▪ _________ to structure and timing of face-to-face interactions: 3–4 months ▪ Social referencing: 8–10 months ▪ _________ parents create risks for child’s emotional, behavioral development (see text box; p. 145) Social Referencing ▪ Reliance on a trusted person’s emotional reactions to _______ an uncertain situation ▪ Used by caregivers to teach children how to ________ to everyday events © alexpro9500/Shutterstock Self-Conscious Emotions ▪ Appear between ages 1½ and 3 years: 1 2 3 4 5 ▪ Require © denys_kuvaiev/Fotolia ▪awareness of self as separate and unique ▪adult instruction in when to feel emotions Emotional Self-Regulation ▪ Adjusting one’s own state of emotional __________ ▪ Requires _________ control ▪ ________ over first year, with brain development ▪ Caregivers ▪ contribute to child’s self-regulation style ▪teach socially approved ways of expressing feelings ▪serve as a “_______ ______” for the child Thomas and Chess Structure of T emperament ▪ Easy: ▪ Difficult: ▪ Slow-to-warm-up: ▪ Unclassified: © Gabriela Insuratelu/Shutterstock Mary Rothbart’s Theory of The Structure of T emperament ▪ Action ▪ Activity level (gross motor) ▪ Attention ▪ Attention span; persistence ▪ Emotion ▪ Fearful distress; irritable distress, positive affect ▪ Self-regulation ▪ Effortful control ▪ability to suppress a dominant response to plan and execute a more adaptive response Biological Basis of Inhibited T emperament ▪ Neurobiological correlates of __________ and _________: ▪ heart rate ▪ saliva concentration of _________ ▪ pupil dilation, blood pressure, skin surface temperature ▪ _________ of temperamental style is influenced by child-rearing practices Stability of T emperament ▪ Stability is ▪ _______ in infancy and toddlerhood ▪ ________ from preschool years on ▪ Temperament ______ ___ with age, becoming more stable after age ____ years © Serhiy Kobyakov/Shuttterstock Heredity and Environment in T emperament ▪ Responsible for about h lf of individual differences ▪ Vary with trait and age of individuals studied ▪ Nutrition ▪ Quality of caregiving ▪ Cultural variations ▪ Gender stereotyping ▪ Role of siblings Goodness-of-Fit ▪ _________ between temperament and child- rearing style ▪ Effective child rearing: good fit with child’s temperament Role of ______ context © Sunny studio-Igor Yaruta/Shutterstock Bowlby’s Ethological Theory of Attachment ▪ Pre-attachment ▪ birth to 6 weeks ▪ Attachment-in-the- making phase ▪ 6 weeks to 6-8 months ▪ Clear-cut attachment phase ▪ 6-8 months to 18 months-2 years ▪ separation anxiety increases 6-15 months ▪ formation of aReciprocal relationship with caregiver © oksix/Shutterstock ▪ 18 months to 2 years and beyond; separation protest declines Measuring Attachment Security ▪Secure:60% ▪Avoidant:15% ▪Resistant:10% ▪Disorganized/ © Pavel L Photo and Video/Shutterstock Cultural V ariations in Attachment Security Figure 6.1 Kroonenberg, 1988; van Ijzendoorn & Sagi-Schwartz, 2008.) Factors That Affect Attachment Security ▪ Early availability of consistent caregiver ▪ not common in orphans making less secure attachments ▪ Quality of caregiving: parental sensitivity ▪ Infant characteristics ▪ Parents’ internal working models (pic of parenting that we get in our head) ▪ flawed model if not good relationship (not fed correctly,abused) with caregiver and can push away from others Multiple Attachments ▪ Fathers ▪ Siblings ▪ Grandparents ▪ Professional caregivers © MNStudio/Shutterstock Role of Paternal Warmth ▪ Often expressed through play ▪ Promoted by ▪ time spent in physical © Elena Yakusheva/Shutterstockty to babies ▪ intimacy and cooperation between parents Siblings and Attachment ▪ Majority of children have siblings ▪ Arrival of new baby can be stressful for older siblings ▪ Siblings typically develop rich emotional relationship ▪ Certain temperamental traits (high emotional reactivity) increase likelihood of sibling conflict Attachment and Later Development ▪ Secure attachment is related to later cognitive, emotional, social competence ▪ Continuity of caregiving promotes favorable development © michaeljung/Fotolia Self-Development ▪ From birth self-awarness ▪ Aided by capacity for intermodal perception ▪ Emerges end of second year self-recogniti▪nPromoted by acting on environment and noting effects empathy ▪ Ability to “feel with” another person ▪ Aided by self-awareness Categorical Self ▪ Classifying self and others into social categories on basis of ▪ age physical © Andrew Taylor/Shutterstock characteristics ▪ goodness vs. badness ▪ Used to organize behavior, including gender-typed behavior Self-Control ▪ Effortful control is the capacity to inhibit impulses ▪ ▪hit someone)ive emotions (control not to scream or ▪behave in socially acceptable ways ▪ Depends on ▪awareness of self as separate, autonomous being ▪confidence in directing own actions ▪memory for caregiver’s directives Compliance ▪ Emerges between 12 and 18 months ▪ Awareness of caregivers’ wishes and expectations ▪ Ability to obey simple requests and commands ▪Toddlers assert autonomy by sometimes not complying (“no” at age 2) ▪ Leads to first conscience-like verbalizations ▪ Delay of gratification: between ages 1½ and 3 years (see if the kid still want toy after certain amount of time) Helping T oddlers Develop Compliance and Self-Control ▪ Respond with sensitivitynd support. ▪ Give advance notice of change in activities. ▪ Offer many prompts and reminders. ▪ reinforce self-controlled behav.or ▪ Encourage sustained attention. ▪ Support language development. ▪ Increase rules gradual.y
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