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CDE 232 Chapter 7

by: Jordan R

CDE 232 Chapter 7 CDE 232

Jordan R
GPA 3.6

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Human Development
Class Notes
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This 44 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan R on Sunday May 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDE 232 at Arizona State University taught by Ladd in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Human Development in Child Development at Arizona State University.

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Date Created: 05/22/16
Chapter 7
 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Physical Development
 in Early Childhood • Skeletal growth: – Ages 2 to 6 •Approx. 45 growth centers (epiphyses) emerge – Dental development •End of preschool years: lose baby teeth •Second-hand smoke promotes tooth decay • Brain development: – rapid growth of the prefrontal cortex – hemispheres continue to lateralize Physical Development
 in Early Childhood • Brain development: – Rapid growth of the prefrontal cortex • Ages 2 – 6: gains 70% to 90% of adult weight • Ages 3 – 6: left hemisphere especially active; right hemisphere matures well into middle childhood • Ages 8 – 10: rapid synaptic pruning occurs – Hemispheres continue to lateralize • Cerebral dominance reflected in handedness – Western nations: 90% right-handed; language and hand control are left-brain – Left-handers: brain is not as strongly lateralized Brain Development in
 Early Childhood • Growth, links among parts of the brain increase: – Cerebellum •balance, control of body movement – Reticular formation •alertness, consciousness – Hippocampus • memory, spatial imaging – Corpus Callosum • Cross-hemispheric connections • Integrates functions such as thinking, movement •in-between to hemispheres and interconnection between left and right hemisphere Influences on 
 Physical Growth and Health • Heredity and hormones: – Growth hormone (GH) Thyroid -stimulating hormone (TSH) – • Nutrition – Poor-quality diet is associated with cognitive deficits and behavior problems • Infectious disease – Poor diet depresses immune system – Illness reduces appetite; risk of malnutrition – Diarrhea a danger in developing countries • Immunization & health •Misconceptions about vaccine safety; cost • Preschoolers lack essential immunizations: – USA: 30%; Canada: 7%; Norway: 10% International
 Death Rates 
 Due to Injury (Adapted from World Health Organization, 2008.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Factors Related to 
 Childhood Injuries • Gender and temperament – Boys 1.5 times more injuries than girls • Child injuries in USA higher due to: – Poverty, single parenthood, low quality child care; lack of parent education • Prevention – Safety seats, child-proof caps, flame-proof clothing, window guards, pool fences Motor Development 
 in Early Childhood • Gross-motor skills: –balanceimproves –gait smooth and rhythmic by age 2 –upper- and lower-body skills combine into more refined actions by age 5 – greater speed and endurance • Fine-motor skills: –self-help:dressing,eating – drawing and printing Individual Differences 
 in Motor Skills • Gender –Boys excel in skills using force and power – Girls excel in skills using balance and agility • Practice • Adult encouragement © locrifa/Shutterstock Overview of Jean Piaget’s 
 Preoperational Stage: Ages 2 to 7 – Sensorimotor development produces schemes • internal images of experience (representations of experience) – Toddlers, preschoolers begin to distinguish schemes from experience, mentally manipulate them • Make-believe play; symbol–real-world relations • Dual representation: object is an object in its own right and can be a symbol (e.g., doll’s house vs. real house) – Limitations in thinking: • Egocentrism : inability to distinguish your perspective from one’s whose is different from yours • Lack of conservation: not thinking reversibly; can’t decenter • Lack of hierarchical classifications: can’t think reversibly from broader to narrower categories Early Childhood
 Development of Make-Believe ▪ With age, make-believe gradually detaches from real-life
 conditions ▪ becomes less
 self-centered ▪ becomes more complex ▪ Sociodramatic play
 develops (make up scenarios to act out) Benefits of Make-Believe Play • Contributes to cognitive and social skills • Strengthens mental abilities: –sustained attention –memory – language and literacy –creativity –regulation of emotion © Mat Hayward/Fotolia – perspective talking Dual Representation • Viewing a symbolic object as both an object and a symbol • Strengthens around age 3 • Adult teaching can help: – experiences with maps, photos, drawings, and make-believe play –pointing out similarities of symbols to real world Egocentrism Failure to distinguish others’ viewpoints from one’s own Figure 7.5 Animistic Thinking Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities © Rob Marmion/Shutterstock Conservation Understanding that physical characteristics remain the same when appearance changes: •Centration: focus on one aspect to
 neglect of others •Irreversibilty: inability to mentally
 reverse a series of steps Piagetian Conservation T asks Piaget’s 
 Class Inclusion Problem Figure 7.7 Follow-Up Research on Preoperational Thought ▪ By 2 or 3, kids can take others’ perspectives on ▪ simplified tasks Egocentrism Animistic thinking results from incomplete knowledge of objects ▪ Conservation evident on simplified tasks ▪ Reasons by analogy about physical changes Logical Thought ▪ Hierarchical classification evident in everyday knowledge Categorization Evaluation of Piaget • Piaget was partly right and partly wrong –Development of logical operations is gradual rather than an abrupt, stage-like shift • Scientists disagree about whether a pre- operational stage really exists – some experts deny the stage approach – others support a flexible stage notion—a related set of competencies develops over an extended period Vygotsky’s 
 Sociocultural Theory • Private speech • Zone of proximal development • Scaffoldin: support of an “expert” © Blend Images/Shutterstock Children’s Private Speech • For Piaget, “egocentric speech” • For Vygotsky, the foundation for all higher cognitive processes • Serves a self-guiding function; increases during challenging tasks • Gradually internalized as silent, inner speech Zone of Proximal Development Scaffolding: – Adults aid learning
 by adjusting support to child’s level of performance – Effectiveness varies © Irina Schmidt/Shutterstocculturally Evaluation of
 Vygotsky’s Theory • Helps us understand cultural variation in cognition • Focuses on language, deemphasizes other routes to cognitive development • Says little about how basic elementary capacities (motor, perceptual, attention, memory, and problem-solving skills) contribute to higher cognitive processes Gains in
 Information Processing • Attention: • sustained attention improves in early childhood as does inhibition, planning • Memory: • Recall poorer than recognition • little strategy (e.g. rehearsal, organization) • episodic (everyday experiences) memory improves • scripts (“main acts” of familiar events) acquired, elaborated • Autobiographical memory (meaningful, one time events) better organized, more detailed The Y oung Child’sTheory of Mind • Early awareness of mental life: – infancy through age 3 • Mastery of false belief tasks: – around age 4 • Factors contributing to mastery of false belief: • language • executive function • social experiences Fostering Emergent Literacy • Language skills: – phonologicawareness –vocabulary and grammar • Informal literacy experiences: – games –interactive reading –writing • Books for low-SES families Recognition and Recall Recognition Recall • Noticing that a ▪ Generating a stimulus is mental identical or representation of similar to one an absent stimulus previously ▪ More difficult than experienced recognition Episodic Memory – episod: memory for familiar everyday events – autobiographical memory: memory for © auremar/Shutterstock one-time events Autobiographical Memory • Improves with cognitive and conversational skills • Influence of adult interaction: –elaborative style: fosters organized and detailed personal stories – repetitive style: weak at promoting autobiographical recall Early Childhood 
 Mathematical Reasoning • Ordinalit: – order relationships between quantities –14–16 months • Cardinality: – when counting, last number is the total © Michael Jay Berlin/Shut3½–4 years – Individual Differences in Early Childhood Mental Development • Factors contributing to individual differences: – home environment – quality of child care, preschool, or
 kindergarten • child-centered
 © auremar/Shutterstock vs. academic • early intervention programs – educational media (discriminate from entertainment media) Features of a High-Quality Home Environment • Stimulation: – toys, games, reading –language –Academic • Physicalorganization • Emotionalsupport • Modeling and encouragement • Variety in stimulation • No physical punishment Types of Preschool Child-Centered Academic ▪ Children select ▪T eachers structure from wide variety learning of activities ▪Formal lessons: ▪ Learn through ▪ letter, numbers, play colors, shapes ▪ repetition and drill Signs of Developmentally Appropriate Practice (see p.192) ▪ Physical setting (diverse activity areas) ▪ Group size (18-20; 2 teachers) ▪ Caregiver–child ratio (centers: 1:8; family: 1:6) ▪ Daily activities (self-initiated activities; small groups) ▪ Adult–child interactions (scaffolding; positive guidance) ▪ Teacher qualifications (college;specialized in ECE, etc.) ▪ Relationships with parents (engaged; guided participation) ▪ Licensing and accreditation (State, NAEYC standards) Educational Media ▪ Television is most common form ▪ Sesame Street vs. entertainment TV ▪ Slow-paced, narrative programs are most effective: ▪ gains in early literacy, math skills ▪ more elaborate make-believe play ▪ higher academic achievement ▪ Excessive entertainment TV can be harmful Learning with Computers ▪ Can support 
 writing skills ▪ Improves problem
 solving and
 metacognition ▪ Excessive use
 for entertainment
 can be harmful Language Development
 in Early Childhood • Vocabulary: fast-mapping • Grammar: overregularization • Conversation: pragmatics • Supporting language development: – recasts – expansions Vocabulary Development ▪ Ages 2-6: Fast- mapping: –object names verbs – – modifiers • By Age 3: © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock (make) new words • Use metaphors Strategies for Word Learning • Mutual exclusivity
 bias • Shape bias • Cues in sentence structure © Levranii/Shutterstock • Rich social
 information Grammatical Development • Basic rules: – subject–verb–object structure between ages 2 and 3 – “-s,” variations of “to be”s to express meaning: • Overregularization: • preschoolers grammar “my toy breaked” • Eventually mastComplex structures: question- asking, passive voice, embedded sentences, indirect objects Pragmatics • 2-year-olds can engage in effective conversation • e.g. take turns in conversations • respond appropriately to parents remarks • By age 4, children adjust their speech to fit listener’s age , sex, social status • Challenging situations,
 such as telephone
 conversations © Roger costa morera/Shutterstock Supporting 
 Early Childhood Language • Conversation with adults • Recasts : restructuring inaccurate speech to correct form – Expansions: elaborating on children’s speech © Jenkedco/Shutterstock Progression of Drawing Skills • _______________ • First _______________ forms: – draws first recognizable pictures: 3 years – draws boundaries
 and tadpole people:
 3–4 years • More _________
 drawings: 5–6 years • Early printing: 4–6
 Figure 7.4 Available from Basic Books, an imprint of The Perseus Books Group.dner. years Psychology Today, 20[8], August 1986, p. 35. Reprinted by permission” from the collection of Ellen Winner.)


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